This book focuses on human anatomy and medicine and specifically on both muscular and skeletal birth defects in humans with trisomy. Moreover, this book also deals with Down syndrome, which is one of the most studied human syndromes and, due to its high incidence and the fact that individuals with this syndrome often live until adulthood, is of spe
Topics and purpose of this book. The musculoskeletal system of a 28-week human Trisomy 18 cyclopia fetus. Comparative anatomy of muscular anomalies of Trisomies 13, 18, and 21. Cyclopia, trisomic anomalies, and order versus chaos in development and evolution. Digits and muscles: topology-directed muscle attachment. Evolutionary theory and mouse models for Down syndrome. Appendix A - Dissection photographs of Trisomy 18 human cyclopia fetus. Appendix B - 3-D renders of Trisomy 18 human cyclopia fetus CT scan data. References. Index.