Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems: Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems

Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds, 1st Edition

By David Julian McClements

CRC Press

572 pages | 141 B/W Illus.

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Description

Recent developments in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems are revolutionizing delivery systems in the food industry. These developments have the potential to solve many of the technical challenges involved in creating encapsulation, protection, and delivery of active ingredients, such as colors, flavors, preservatives, vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals. Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems: Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds explores various types of colloidal delivery systems available for encapsulating active ingredients, highlighting their relative advantages and limitations and their use.

Written by an international authority known for his clear and rigorous technical writing style, this book discusses the numerous kinds of active ingredients available and the issues associated with their encapsulation, protection, and delivery. The author takes a traditional colloid science approach and emphasizes the practical aspects of formulation of particulate- and emulsion-based delivery systems with food applications. He then covers the physicochemical and mechanical methods available for manufacturing colloidal particles, highlighting the importance of designing particles for specific applications.

The book includes chapters devoted specifically to the three major types of colloidal delivery systems available for encapsulating active ingredients in the food industry: surfactant-based, emulsion-based, and biopolymer-based. It then reviews the analytical tools available for characterizing the properties of colloidal delivery systems, presents the mathematical models for describing their properties, and highlights the factors to consider when selecting an appropriate delivery system for a particular application backed up by specific case studies.

Based on insight from the author’s own experience, the book describes why delivery systems are needed, the important factors to consider when designing them, methods of characterizing them, and specific examples of the range of food-grade delivery systems available. It gives you the necessary knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of developments within the current research literature in this rapidly growing field and the confidence to perform reliable experimental investigations according to modern international standards.

Table of Contents

Background and Context

Introduction

Terminology

Active Ingredients and the Need for Encapsulation

Flavors and Colors

Antioxidants

Antimicrobials

Bioactive Lipids

Bioactive Carbohydrates

Bioactive Proteins

Bioactive Minerals

Challenges to Incorporating Active Ingredients in Foods

Low Solubility

Inappropriate Physical State

Poor Physicochemical Stability

Poor Biochemical Stability

Poor Flavor Profile

Poor Handling Characteristics

Fabrication of Delivery Systems

Surfactant-Based Systems

Emulsion-Based Systems

Biopolymer-Based Systems

Hybrid Systems

Nature-Inspired Systems

Desirable Characteristics of Delivery Systems

Food-Grade

Economic Production

Food Matrix Compatibility

Protection against Chemical Degradation

Loading Capacity, Encapsulation Efficiency, and Retention

Delivery Mechanism

Bioavailability/Bioactivity

Release Mechanisms

Diffusion

Dissolution

Erosion

Fragmentation

Swelling

Designing Release Profiles

Summary

References

Active Ingredients

Introduction

Lipid-Based Ingredients

Neutral Oils

Flavor and Essential Oils

Oil-Soluble Colorants

Lipophilic Nutraceuticals

Challenges to Delivery of Lipid-Based Ingredients

Protein-Based Ingredients

Proteins

Peptides and Amino Acids

Challenges to Delivery of Proteins, Peptides, and Amino acids

Carbohydrate-Based Ingredients

Polysaccharides

Digestible Polysaccharides

Indigestible Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides

Challenges to Delivery of Carbohydrates

Mineral-Based Ingredients

Iron

Zinc

Calcium

Challenges to Delivery of Minerals

Microorganisms

Probiotics

Challenges to Delivery of Probiotics

Summary

References

Particle Characteristics and Their Impact on Physicochemical Properties of Delivery Systems

Introduction

Particle Building Blocks

Molecules, Particles, and Phases

Molecular and Colloidal Interactions

Particle Characteristics

Composition

Morphology

Concentration

Particle Physicochemical Properties

Particle Dimensions

Particle Charge

Particle Interactions

Loading Characteristics

Release Characteristics

Impact of Particle Properties on Physicochemical Properties

Rheology and Texture

Optical Properties and Appearance

Stability and Shelf Life

Molecular Partitioning and Transport

Summary

References

Mechanical Particle Fabrication Methods

Introduction

Homogenization Methods

Higher-Shear Mixers

Colloid Mills

High-Pressure Valve Homogenizers

Ultrasonic Homogenizers

Microfluidization

Membrane and Microchannel Homogenizers

Atomization Methods

Spray Drying

Spray Chilling

Rotary Disk Atomization

Electrospraying

Milling Methods

Extrusion Methods

Coating Methods

Supercritical Fluid Methods

Summary

References

Surfactant-Based Delivery Systems

Introduction

Building Blocks: Surfactants

Molecular Characteristics

Physicochemical Properties

Surfactant Classification Schemes

Food-Grade Surfactants

Micelle and Microemulsion Delivery Systems

Composition and Structure

Formation

Properties

Applications

Liposome Delivery Systems

Composition and Structure

Formation

Properties

Applications

Summary

References

Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems

Introduction

Building Blocks: Fat Droplets

Droplet Concentration

Particle Size

Particle Charge

Interfacial Characteristics

Physical State

Colloidal Interactions

Controlling Droplet Characteristics for Improved Performance

Physicochemical Properties of Emulsions

Appearance

Rheology

Stability

Molecular Distribution and Release Characteristics

Implications for Design of Delivery Systems

Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems

Emulsions and Nanoemulsions

Multiple Emulsions

Multilayer Emulsions

Solid Lipid Particles

Filled Hydrogel Particles

Microclusters

Miscellaneous Systems

Summary

References

Biopolymer-Based Delivery Systems

Introduction

Building Blocks: Biopolymers

Proteins

Polysaccharides

Molecular Interactions

Electrostatic Interactions

Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrophobic Interactions

Excluded Volume Effects

Covalent Interactions

Assembling Biopolymer Structures

Physiochemical Methods for Biopolymer Particle Formation

Formation of Molecular Complexes

Formation of Hydrogel Particles

Mechanical Methods for Biopolymer Particle Formation

Extrusion Methods

Microfluidic Methods

Spray Drying and Other Drying Methods

Antisolvent Precipitation

Emulsion Templating

Shearing Methods

Molding Techniques

Biopolymer Particle Properties

Particle Structure

Particle Electrical Characteristics

Particle Physicochemical Properties

Particle Integrity and Environmental Responsiveness

Potential Applications

Encapsulation and Protection

Controlled Release

Lightening Agents

Texture Modification

Fat Replacement

Summary

References

Delivery System Characterization Methods

Introduction

Particle Characteristics

Particle Concentration

Particle Morphology and Organization

Particle Size

Particle Charge

Particle Physical State

Bulk Physicochemical Properties

Optical Properties

Rheology

Flavor

Protection, Retention, and Release Characteristics

Protection

Retention and Release

Biological Fate

In Vitro Approaches

In Vivo Approaches

In Vitro versus In Vivo Correlations

Measurement of Changes in Delivery System Properties

Summary

References

Selection of Delivery Systems: Case Studies

Introduction

Design Criteria for Colloidal Delivery Systems

Identification of Appropriate Colloidal Delivery Systems

Nutraceutical-Fortified Soft Drinks

Design Criteria

Dairy-Based Functional Beverages Designed to Enhance Nutraceutical Bioavailability

Design Criteria

Potential Delivery Systems

Delivery of Probiotics to the Colon

Design Criteria

Potential Delivery Systems

Controlled Flavor Release

Design Criteria

Protection of Lipophilic Active Agents against Oxidation

Design Criteria

Potential Delivery Systems

Summary

References

Key Physicochemical Concepts

Introduction

Physical States and Phase Transitions

Physical States

Crystallization and Melting

Crystallization and Dissolution

Partitioning Phenomenon

Equilibrium Partitioning Coefficients

Solute Partitioning in Delivery Systems

Mass Transport Processes

Diffusion

Convection

Modeling Release Profiles from Colloidal Delivery Systems

Diffusion

Particle Dissolution

Particle Swelling

Particle Matrix Degradation

Particle Matrix Fragmentation

Establishing Release Mechanisms

Modeling Particle Aggregation

Colloidal Interactions

Calculation of Aggregation Kinetics

Modeling Bioavailability of Bioactives in the GIT

Release of Bioactive Components

Absorption of Bioactive Components

Summary

References

Index

About the Author

David Julian McClements is a Professor at the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts. He specializes in the areas of food biopolymers and colloids, and in particular on the development of food-based structured delivery systems for bioactive components. Dr McClements received his Ph.D. in Food Science (1989) at the University of Leeds (United Kingdom). He then did Post Doctoral Research at the University of Leeds, University of California (Davis) and University College Cork (Ireland). Dr McClements is the sole author of the first and second editions of "Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice and Techniques", co-author of "Advances in Food Colloids" with Prof. Eric Dickinson, and co-editor of "Developments in Acoustics and Ultrasonics", "Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods", "Designing Functional Foods" and "Oxidation in Foods and Beverages (Volumes 1 and 2)" and "Encapsulation and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals". In addition, he has published over 460 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals (with a H-index of 55). Dr McClements has previously received awards from the American Chemical Society, American Oil Chemists Society, Institute of Food Technologists, and University of Massachusetts in recognition of his scientific achievements. His research has been funded by grants from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, US Department of Commerce, Dairy Management Incorporated, and the food industry. He is member of the editorial boards of a number of journals, and has organized workshops, symposia and conferences in the field of food colloids, food emulsions, and delivery systems.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science