1st Edition

Nanoparticles in Humans Experiments, Methods, and Strategies

Edited By Lev S. Ruzer Copyright 2016
    152 Pages 32 Color Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    152 Pages 32 Color Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    A peek into the literature on the environmental health implications of the rapidly developing nanotechnology industry shows that the potential problem of exposure to airborne nanoparticles has not been adequately addressed. The health and safety of nanotechnology workers are of concern because these groups run the greatest risk of exposure to elevated concentrations of nanomaterials. However, a gap exists between the currently available particle measurement methods and those appropriate for the assessment of nanoaerosol exposure.

    This book presents new ideas and methods to measure the surface area and local deposition of nanoparticles in the lungs and the true value of respirators. It proposes a nanoparticle dosimetric road map that can be used as a general strategy for the assessment of the dose, which is the most important physical cause of adverse effects on health in the case of nanoparticle exposure. The book suggests the use of 1 nm radioactive particles, called unattached activity of radon progeny, as a safe experimental tool for nanoparticle studies, including human studies. It discusses the problems related to the general strategy of risk assessment in nanoparticle exposure and concrete parameters related to dosage. The ideas presented in this book help close the gaps in our knowledge of aerosols in the nanometer range and improve our understanding of nanoparticle behavior in the air and in the human body.

    Radon Deadlock
    Radon and Health

    Measurement of the Concentration of Decay Products of Radon, Thoron, and Actinon
    Characteristics of Radon Progeny
    The Basic Equations for Radon Decay Product Series
    The General Activity Methods of Measuring Concentration of Radon Decay Products
    Measurement of Radon Decay Products in Air by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry
    Absorption of Alpha Radiation in the Sample
    Measurement Procedure for Determination of Activity of RaA, RaB, RaC, and RaC′ on Filter by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry
    Characteristics of Thoron and Actinon Decay Products
    The Basic Equations for Thoron and Actinon Series

    Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny
    Unattached Activity Properties
    Correlation between the Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products and Aerosol Concentration
    Measurements of Other Radon Decay Product Unattached Activity Concentration
    The Effect of Recoil Nuclei Being Knocked Off Aerosol Particles Unattached Concentration of Radon Decay Products

    Method of Direct Measurement of Activity (Dose) in Miners’ Lungs
    Theory of the Method
    Assessment of the Uncertainties in the Evaluation of the Dose
    Correction for the Shift of Equilibrium of Radon Progeny in the Air and in the Lungs
    Accounting for Parametric Variations: Variations of Concentrations, Breathing Rate and Deposition Coefficients in Real Working Conditions
    Model Measurement
    Phantom Measurements and Geometric Corrections
    Assessment of the Errors of the Direct Method
    Portable Instrument for Direct Measurement of the Activity of Radon Decay Products in the Lungs of Miners

    Assessment of the Nanoparticles’ Surface Area by Measuring the Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny
    The Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products

    Local Deposition of Nanoparticles in the Human Lung
    Safety of Radioactive Markers in Aerosol Exposure Studies
    Assessment of Particle Deposition in Lungs
    Previous Experiments with This Method
    Human Studies
    Controlled Protocol for Study of Nanoparticle Lung Deposition in Human Subjects
    Discussion and Conclusion

    Exposure and Dose in Nanoaerosols Studies
    Exposure: Definitions
    Examples of Exposure–Effect Study without Dose Assessment
    Nanoparticle: Definition
    Nanoparticles Dosimetric Road Map
    Nanoparticle Surface Area Measurements
    Nanoparticle Respirators’ True Effectiveness Measurements
    Local Lung Deposition and Dosimetry for Nanoparticles
    Human Experiment Safety Problems


    Lev S. Ruzer (1922–2014) was a researcher in the Indoor Environment Department, Environment Energy Technologies Division, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. He received his education in the former USSR and began his scientific career with research on dose assessment in animals exposed to radon and its decay products. On the basis of this theoretical and experimental work, he obtained his degree as a candidate of physicomathematical sciences (equivalent to a PhD) in 1961 from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. From 1961 to 1979, he was the founder and chair of the Aerosol Laboratory at the Institute of Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Moscow. The set of installations developed under his supervision for generating and measuring different types of aerosols was certified as the State Standard of Aerosols in the former USSR. This work did not have an equivalent at the time. His book on radioactive aerosols came out in 1968. Dr. Ruzer arrived in the United States in 1987 and joined the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1989. He published more than 130 papers, edited 2 books, authored 3 books, and had 3 patents to his credit. He was on the editorial boards of several international journals.