1st Edition

Physical, Chemical, and Biological

ISBN 9781439827123
Published October 26, 2011 by CRC Press
666 Pages - 179 B/W Illustrations

USD $219.95

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Book Description

Bringing together widely scattered information, Nanosensors: Physical, Chemical, and Biological explores sensor development in the nanotechnology age. This easy-to-read book presents a critical appraisal of the new opportunities in the area of sensors provided by nanotechnologies and nanotechnology-enabled advancements.

After introducing nanosensor classification and fundamental terms, the book outlines the properties of important nanomaterials and nanotechnologies used in nanosensor fabrication. Subsequent chapters are organized according to nanosensor type: physical (mechanical and acoustical, thermal and radiation, optical, and magnetic); chemical (atomic and molecular energies); and biological. The final chapter summarizes the current state of the field and discusses future trends.

A complete and authoritative guide to nanosensors, this book offers up-to-date information on the fabrication, properties, and operating mechanisms of these fast and reliable sensors. It addresses progress in the field, fundamental issues and challenges facing researchers, and prospects for future development.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Nanosensors
Getting Started with Nanosensors
Natural Sciences
Semiconductor Electronics
Nanometer and Appreciation of Its Magnitude
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nanomaterials and the Unusual Behavior at Nanoscales
Moving toward Sensors and Transducers: Meaning of Terms "Sensors" and "Transducers"
Definition of Sensor Parameters and Characteristics
Evolution of Semiconductor-Based Microsensors
From Macrosensor to Microsensor Age and Necessity of Nanoscale Measurements
Definition and Classification of Nanosensors
Physical, Chemical, and Biological Nanosensors
Some Examples of Nanosensors
Getting Familiar with Analytical and Characterization Tools: Microscopic Techniques to View Nanomaterials and Nanosensors
Spectroscopic Techniques for Analyzing Chemical Composition of Nanomaterials and Nanosensors
The Displacement Nanosensor: STM
The Force Nanosensor: AFM
Outline and Organization of the Book
Discussion and Conclusions

Materials for Nanosensors
Nanoparticles or Nanoscale Particles, and Importance of the Intermediate Regime between Atoms and Molecules, and Bulk Matter
Classification of Nanoparticles on the Basis of Their Composition and Occurrence
Core/Shell-Structured Nanoparticles
Shape Dependence of Properties at Nanoscale
Dependence of Properties of Nanoparticles on Particle Size
Surface Energy of a Solid
Metallic Nanoparticles and Plasmons
Optical Properties of Bulk Metals and Metallic Nanoparticles
Parameters Controlling the Position of Surface Plasmon Band of Nanoparticles
Quantum Confinement
Quantum Dots
Carbon Nanotubes
Inorganic Nanowires
Nanoporous Materials
Discussion and Conclusions

Nanosensor Laboratory
Nanotechnology Division
Micro- and Nanoelectronics Division
MEMS and NEMS Division
Biochemistry Division
Chemistry Division
Nanosensor Characterization Division
Nanosensor Powering, Signal Processing, and Communication Division
Discussion and Conclusions

Mechanical Nanosensors
Nanogram Mass Sensing by Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Attogram (10−18 g) and Zeptogram (10−21 g) Mass Sensing by MEMS/NEMS Resonators
Electron Tunneling Displacement Nanosensor
Coulomb Blockade Electrometer-Based Displacement Nanosensor
Nanometer-Scale Displacement Sensing by Single-Electron Transistor
Magnetomotive Displacement Nanosensor
Piezoresistive and Piezoelectric Displacement Nanosensors
Optical Displacement Nanosensor
Femtonewton Force Sensors Using Doubly Clamped Suspended Carbon Nanotube Resonators
Suspended CNT Electromechanical Sensors for Displacement and Force
Membrane-Based CNT Electromechanical Pressure Sensor
Tunnel Effect Accelerometer
NEMS Accelerometer
Silicon Nanowire Accelerometer
CNT Flow Sensor for Ionic Solutions
Discussion and Conclusions

Thermal Nanosensors
Nanoscale Thermocouple Formed by Tungsten and Platinum Nanosize Strips
Resistive Thermal Nanosensor Fabricated by Focused Ion Beam Chemical Vapor Deposition
"Carbon-Nanowire-on-Diamond" Resistive Temperature Nanosensor
Carbon Nanotube Grown on Nickel Film as Resistive Low-Temperature (10–300 K) Nanosensor
Laterally Grown CNT between Two Microelectrodes as Resistive Temperature Nanosensor
Silicon Nanowire Temperature Nanosensors: Resistors and Diode Structures
Ratiometric Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Temperature Sensing
Er3+/Yb3+ Co-Doped Gd2O3 Nano-Phosphor as Temperature Nanosensor Using Fluorescence Intensity Ratio Technique
Optical Heating of Yb3+–Er3+ Co-Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles and Distant Temperature Sensing through Luminescence
Porphyrin-Containing Copolymer as Thermochromic Nanosensor
Silicon-Micromachined Scanning Thermal Profiler
Superconducting Hot Electron Nanobolometers
Thermal Convective Accelerometer Using CNT Sensing Element
SWCNT Sensor for Airflow Measurement
Vacuum Pressure and Flow Velocity Sensors Using Batch-Processed CNT Wall
Nanogap Pirani Gauge
Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Nanocomposite as Conductivity Response Infrared Nanosensor
Discussion and Conclusions

Optical Nanosensors
Noble-Metal Nanoparticles with LSPR and UV–Visible Spectroscopy
Nanosensors Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Colloidal SPR Colorimetric Gold Nanoparticle Spectrophotometric Sensor
Fiber-Optic Nanosensors
Nanograting-Based Optical Accelerometer
Fluorescent pH-Sensitive Nanosensors
Disadvantages of Optical Fiber and Fluorescent Nanosensors for Living Cell Studies
PEBBLE Nanosensors to Measure the Intracellular Environment
Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Labels
Quantum Dot FRET-Based Probes
Electrochemiluminescent Nanosensors for Remote Detection
Crossed Zinc Oxide Nanorods as Resistive UV Nanosensors
Discussion and Conclusions

Magnetic Nanosensors
Magnetoresistance Sensors
Tunneling Magnetoresistance
Limitations, Advantages, and Applications of GMR and TMR Sensors
Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for Studying Molecular Interactions
Protease-Specific Nanosensors for MRI
Magnetic Relaxation Switch Immunosensors
Magneto Nanosensor Microarray Biochip
Needle-Type SV-GMR Sensor for Biomedical Applications
Superconductive Magnetic Nanosensor
Electron Tunneling-Based Magnetic Field Sensor
Nanowire Magnetic Compass and Position Sensor
Discussion and Conclusions

Nanoparticle-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
CNT-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
Functionalization of CNTs for Biosensor Fabrication
Quantum Dot-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
Nanotube- and Nanowire-Based FET Nanobiosensors
Cantilever-Based Nanobiosensors
Optical Nanobiosensors
Biochips (or Microarrays)
Discussion and Conclusions

Chemical Nanosensors
Gas Sensors Based on Nanomaterials
Metallic Nanoparticle-Based Gas Sensors
Metal Oxide Gas Sensors
Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors
Porous Silicon-Based Gas Sensor
Thin Organic Polymer Film–Based Gas Sensors
Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers as Humidity Sensors
Toward Large Nanosensor Arrays and Nanoelectronic Nose
CNT-, Nanowire-, and Nanobelt-Based Chemical Nanosensors
Optochemical Nanosensors
Discussion and Conclusions

Future Trends of Nanosensors
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Atomic Force Microscope
Mechanical Nanosensors
Thermal Nanosensors
Optical Nanosensors
Magnetic Nanosensors
Chemical Nanosensors
Nanosensor Fabrication Aspects
In Vivo Nanosensor Problems
Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Biosensors
Interfacing Issues for Nanosensors: Power Consumption and Sample Delivery Problems
Depletion-Mediated Piezoelectric Actuation for NEMS
Discussion and Conclusions


Review Exercises and References appear at the end of each chapter.

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Vinod Kumar Khanna is chief scientist and head of the MEMS and Microsensors Group at CSIR-CEERI, where he has worked for over 30 years on the design, fabrication, and characterization of various solid-state devices. A fellow of the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (India), Dr. Khanna is also a life member of the Indian Physics Association, the Semiconductor Society (India), and the Indo-French Technical Association. His research interests include power semiconductor devices, MEMS, and microsensors.

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Khanna gathers and critically appraises research findings reflecting the impact of nanotechnology on sensors. He writes in a question-answer format, and acknowledges the interdisciplinary nature of nanotechnology by assuming no advanced knowledge in any particular field.
—SciTech News, Vol. 66, September 2012

With the burgeoning interest in sensor technology, students new to the field will find some part of this book as a readable and enjoyable introduction.
—Peter J. Dobson, Contemporary Physics, July 2012

Overviewing this highly interdisciplinary, fast-moving field in a format accessible to scientists from different disciplines is very challenging, but Nanosensors: Physical, Chemical, and Biological successfully achieves this challenge. … a complete and authoritative guide to nanosensors … The clear definitions, well-explained mathematical formulae, and well-designed illustrations make the book very easy to understand … provides the reader with a very good understanding of the fundamental issues, challenges and recent progress in the field of nanosensors. … a very good reference for scientists from different fields … a very stimulating read thanks to the numerous question-and-answer sections. This is a recommended title for physicists, chemists, biologists working with sensors, or for any scientist or engineer with an interest in nanotechnology.
—Iulia Georgescu, The-Briefing.com, March 2012

The book has some significant strengths. Among them are its comprehensive coverage and its use of illustrative calculations to enhance the more descriptive sections. The depth of presentation ranges from the basic high school level to discussions of recent research literature. The book’s most likely beneficiaries are researchers in either sensor technology or nanotechnology who want to see how the two fields complement each other and can be combined in new and interesting ways to tackle important applications
—Tony Cass, Physics Today, March 2012