Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Nanostructured Energy Devices

Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics, 1st Edition

By Juan Bisquert

CRC Press

352 pages | 236 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-11-11
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Description

The first volume, Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics (ECK), examines fundamental principles of semiconductor energetics, interfacial charge transfer, basic concepts and methods of measurement and the properties of important classes of materials such as metal oxides and organic semiconductors. These materials and their properties are important in the operation of organic and perovskite solar cells either as the bulk absorber or as a selective contact structure. Electrolytic and solid ionic conductor properties also play relevant roles in organic and perovskite solar cells.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Energy Devices

References

Electrostatic and Thermodynamic Potentials of Electrons in Materials

Electrostatic Potential

Energies of Free Electrons and Holes

Potential Energy of the Electrons in the Semiconductor

The Vacuum Level

The Fermi Level and the Work Function

The Chemical Potential of Electrons

Potential Step of a Dipole Layer or a Double Layer

Origin of Surface Dipoles

The Volta Potential

Equalization of Fermi Levels of Two Electronic Conductors in Contact

Equilibration of Metal Junctions and the Contact Potential Difference

Equilibrium across the Semiconductor Junction

General References

References

Voltage, Capacitors, and Batteries

The Voltage in the Device

Anode and Cathode

Applied Voltage and Potential Difference

The Capacitor

Measurement of the Capacitance

Energy Storage in the Capacitor

Electrochemical Systems: Structure of the Metal/Solution Interface

Electrode Potential and Reference Electrodes

Redox Potential in Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemical and Physical Scales of Electron Energy in Material Systems

Changes of Electrolyte Levels with pH

Principles of Electrochemical Batteries

Capacity and Energy Content

Practical Electrochemical Batteries

Li–Ion Battery

General references

References

Work Functions and Injection Barriers

Injection to Vacuum in Thermionic Emission

Richardson—Dushman Equation

Kelvin Probe Method

Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy

Injection Barriers

Pinning of the Fermi Level and Charge Neutrality Level

General References

References

Thermal Distribution of Electrons, Holes, and Ions in Solids

Equilibration of the Electrochemical Potential of Electrons

Configurational Entropy of Weakly Interacting Particles

Equilibrium Occupancy of Conduction Band and Valence Band States

Equilibrium Fermi Level and the Carrier Number in Semiconductors

Transparent Conducting Oxides

Hot Electrons

Screening

The Rectifier at Forward and Reverse Voltage

Semiconductor Devices as Thermal Machines that Realize Useful Work

Cell Potential in the Lithium Ion Battery

Insertion of Ions: The Lattice Gas Model

General References

References

Interfacial Kinetics and Hopping Transitions

Detailed Balance Principle

Form of the Transition Rates

Kinetics of Localized States: Shockley–Read–Hall Recombination Model

Reorganization Effects in Charge Transfer: the Marcus Model

Polaron Hopping

Rate of Electrode Reaction: Butler–Volmer Equation

Electron Transfer at Metal–Semiconductor Contact

Electron Transfer at Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface

General References

References

The Chemical Capacitance

Carrier Accumulation and Energy Storage in the Chemical Capacitance

Localized Electronic States in Disordered Materials and Surface States

Chemical Capacitance of a Single State

Chemical Capacitance of a Broad DOS

Filling a DOS with Carriers—The Voltage and the Conductivity

Chemical Capacitance of Li Intercalation Materials

Chemical Capacitance of Graphene

General References

References

The Density of States in Disordered Inorganic and Organic Conductors

Capacitive and Reactive Current in Cyclic Voltammetry

Kinetic Effects in CV Response

The Exponential DOS in Amorphous Semiconductors

The Exponential DOS in Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides

Basic Properties of Organic Layers

The Gaussian DOS

General References

References

Planar and Nanostructured Semiconductor Junctions

Structure of the Schottky Barrier at a Metal/Semiconductor Contact

Changes of the Schottky Barrier by the Applied Voltage

Properties of the Planar Depletion Layer

Mott–Schottky Plots

Capacitance Response of Defect Levels and Surface States

Semiconductor Electrodes and the Flatb and Potential

Changes of Redox Level and Band Unpinning

Inversion and Accumulation Layer

Heterojunctions

Effect of Voltage on Highly Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors

Homogeneous Carrier Accumulation in Low-Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors

General References

References

Appendix

Index

About the Author

Juan Bisquert M.Sc. degree in physics in 1985 and the Ph.D. degree in 1992, both from the Universitat de València, Spain. He worked in the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, from 1987 to 1992, and is a professor of applied physics at Universitat Jaume I de Castelló. At the beginning of his research career he worked in mathematical physics, in the field of relativistic quantum theory. His interests moved to the theoretical and experimental analysis of relaxation phenomena in solids and physical electrochemistry. He conducts experimental and theoretical research on nanoscale devices for production and storage of clean energies. His main topics of interest are dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, perovskite solar cells and solar fuel production. He has developed the application of measurement techniques and physical modeling that relate the device operation with the elementary steps that take place at the nanoscale dimension: charge transfer, carrier transport, chemical reaction, etc., especially in the field of impedance spectroscopy, as well as general device models. The research interests also include related systems such as batteries, organic LEDs and bioelectronics/biofuels.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science