Nanostructured Energy Devices : Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics book cover
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Nanostructured Energy Devices
Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics




ISBN 9781439836026
Published November 11, 2014 by CRC Press
352 Pages - 236 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The first volume, Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics (ECK), examines fundamental principles of semiconductor energetics, interfacial charge transfer, basic concepts and methods of measurement and the properties of important classes of materials such as metal oxides and organic semiconductors. These materials and their properties are important in the operation of organic and perovskite solar cells either as the bulk absorber or as a selective contact structure. Electrolytic and solid ionic conductor properties also play relevant roles in organic and perovskite solar cells.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Energy Devices
References

Electrostatic and Thermodynamic Potentials of Electrons in Materials
Electrostatic Potential
Energies of Free Electrons and Holes
Potential Energy of the Electrons in the Semiconductor
The Vacuum Level
The Fermi Level and the Work Function
The Chemical Potential of Electrons
Potential Step of a Dipole Layer or a Double Layer
Origin of Surface Dipoles
The Volta Potential
Equalization of Fermi Levels of Two Electronic Conductors in Contact
Equilibration of Metal Junctions and the Contact Potential Difference
Equilibrium across the Semiconductor Junction
General References
References

Voltage, Capacitors, and Batteries
The Voltage in the Device
Anode and Cathode
Applied Voltage and Potential Difference
The Capacitor
Measurement of the Capacitance
Energy Storage in the Capacitor
Electrochemical Systems: Structure of the Metal/Solution Interface
Electrode Potential and Reference Electrodes
Redox Potential in Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemical and Physical Scales of Electron Energy in Material Systems
Changes of Electrolyte Levels with pH
Principles of Electrochemical Batteries
Capacity and Energy Content
Practical Electrochemical Batteries
Li–Ion Battery
General references
References

Work Functions and Injection Barriers
Injection to Vacuum in Thermionic Emission
Richardson—Dushman Equation
Kelvin Probe Method
Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy
Injection Barriers
Pinning of the Fermi Level and Charge Neutrality Level
General References
References

Thermal Distribution of Electrons, Holes, and Ions in Solids
Equilibration of the Electrochemical Potential of Electrons
Configurational Entropy of Weakly Interacting Particles
Equilibrium Occupancy of Conduction Band and Valence Band States
Equilibrium Fermi Level and the Carrier Number in Semiconductors
Transparent Conducting Oxides
Hot Electrons
Screening
The Rectifier at Forward and Reverse Voltage
Semiconductor Devices as Thermal Machines that Realize Useful Work
Cell Potential in the Lithium Ion Battery
Insertion of Ions: The Lattice Gas Model
General References
References

Interfacial Kinetics and Hopping Transitions
Detailed Balance Principle
Form of the Transition Rates
Kinetics of Localized States: Shockley–Read–Hall Recombination Model
Reorganization Effects in Charge Transfer: the Marcus Model
Polaron Hopping
Rate of Electrode Reaction: Butler–Volmer Equation
Electron Transfer at Metal–Semiconductor Contact
Electron Transfer at Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface
General References
References

The Chemical Capacitance
Carrier Accumulation and Energy Storage in the Chemical Capacitance
Localized Electronic States in Disordered Materials and Surface States
Chemical Capacitance of a Single State
Chemical Capacitance of a Broad DOS
Filling a DOS with Carriers—The Voltage and the Conductivity
Chemical Capacitance of Li Intercalation Materials
Chemical Capacitance of Graphene
General References
References

The Density of States in Disordered Inorganic and Organic Conductors
Capacitive and Reactive Current in Cyclic Voltammetry
Kinetic Effects in CV Response
The Exponential DOS in Amorphous Semiconductors
The Exponential DOS in Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides
Basic Properties of Organic Layers
The Gaussian DOS
General References
References

Planar and Nanostructured Semiconductor Junctions
Structure of the Schottky Barrier at a Metal/Semiconductor Contact
Changes of the Schottky Barrier by the Applied Voltage
Properties of the Planar Depletion Layer
Mott–Schottky Plots
Capacitance Response of Defect Levels and Surface States
Semiconductor Electrodes and the Flatb and Potential
Changes of Redox Level and Band Unpinning
Inversion and Accumulation Layer
Heterojunctions
Effect of Voltage on Highly Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors
Homogeneous Carrier Accumulation in Low-Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors
General References
References
Appendix
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Juan Bisquert M.Sc. degree in physics in 1985 and the Ph.D. degree in 1992, both from the Universitat de València, Spain. He worked in the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, from 1987 to 1992, and is a professor of applied physics at Universitat Jaume I de Castelló. At the beginning of his research career he worked in mathematical physics, in the field of relativistic quantum theory. His interests moved to the theoretical and experimental analysis of relaxation phenomena in solids and physical electrochemistry. He conducts experimental and theoretical research on nanoscale devices for production and storage of clean energies. His main topics of interest are dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, perovskite solar cells and solar fuel production. He has developed the application of measurement techniques and physical modeling that relate the device operation with the elementary steps that take place at the nanoscale dimension: charge transfer, carrier transport, chemical reaction, etc., especially in the field of impedance spectroscopy, as well as general device models. The research interests also include related systems such as batteries, organic LEDs and bioelectronics/biofuels.