Nanotherapeutics: From Laboratory to Clinic, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover


From Laboratory to Clinic, 1st Edition

By Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury

CRC Press

336 pages | 72 Color Illus.

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pub: 2016-04-27
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The emergence of nanotherapeutics is attributable to the integration of nanotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, and synthetic organic chemistry with medicine for treating critical human diseases in a more efficient and specific molecular approach than therapy with conventionally-designed and formulated drugs. Nanotherapeutics: From Laboratory to Clinic comprehensively discusses the current shortcomings for delivery of classical (small) drugs, macromolecular therapeutics, and recombinant vaccine via the common intravascular and extravascular routes.

The book describes the synthetic/chemical engineering methods as well as recombinant, hybridoma, and phage display technologies to fabricate different types of nanoparticulate carriers and drugs. It also reveals the diversified approaches undertaken by harnessing nanotechnology to overcome the multistep extracellular and intracellular barriers and to facilitate the development of novel strategies for therapeutic delivery and imaging. The author elaborates on the preclinical and clinical trials of potential nanoparticle-based products in animal models and patients and the approval/commercialization of nanotherapeutics, addressing all relevant human diseases.

A focus on the above issues in a concise but illustrative manner fills the gap between the laboratory findings originating from the research on identification of cellular and systemic barriers of classical and macromolecular drugs along with development of strategies for fabrication and testing of nanotherapeutics, and the clinical outcomes emanating from the testing of the selected potential nanotherapeutics on patients of particular diseases. The book also fills a gap in the existing literature between the design and development of diversified nanotherapeutics for various purposes and the investigation and evaluation of potential barriers and resultant therapeutic efficacy of those nano-medicine formulations.

Table of Contents

Emergence of nanotherapeutics: Challenges in classical drug transport versus macromolecular drug design

Administration of small-molecule drugs: Traffic routes toward the bloodstream

Fates of the small-molecule drugs in blood

Major problems associated with traditional formulations of small-molecule drugs

Alteration of pharmacokinetics of small-molecule drugs with macromolecules

Protein-based macromolecular drugs

DNA/RNA-based macromolecular drugs

Macromolecules for prodrug therapy

Macromolecules for vaccine delivery

Nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

Macromolecules for image-guided drug delivery

The ultimate destinations for delivery and release of nanotherapeutics

Sustained-release formulations

Intracellular delivery and release

Factors involved in drug release from nanoparticles

Diversity of bioactive nanoparticles from biological, chemical, and physical perspectives

Viral vectors

Nonviral vectors

Hybrid particles

Genetically-engineered drug carriers

Bioconjugation schemes for functionalization of and ligand attachment to nanoparticle surface

Fabrication strategies for biofunctional nanoparticles

Chemical synthesis and engineering

Recombinant DNA, hybridoma, and phage display techniques

Interactions and orientation of therapeutic drugs in the vicinity of nanoparticles

Dendrimer-drug interactions

Amphiphilic block copolymer-drug interactions

Liposome-drug interactions

Inorganic nanoparticle-drug interactions

Variable interactions of nanoparticles with blood, lymph, and extracellular and intracellular components

Serum proteins with affinity to nanoparticles

Fates of the serum protein-coated nanoparticles

Interactions of nanoparticles with interstitial fluid and lymph

Extracellular matrix-nanoparticle interactions

Interactions between nanoparticles and cell components

Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles

Influence of particle size

Influence of plasticity of nanoparticles

Influence of protein corona formed around nanoparticles

Influence of charge and hydrophilicity

Influence of endogenous membrane coating

Influence of ligand coating

Influence of coating of CD47 as a "self" marker

Extravasation from blood through vascular endothelium

Transport across the interstitium

Cellular uptake, metabolism, and excretion

Specific roles of nanoparticles in various steps of drug transport

Protection of nucleic acid- and protein-based drugs against degradation

Passive targeting to facilitate endothelial escape

Drug delivery via the lymphatic system

Targeting cell surface receptors and facilitated uptake

Endosomal escape

Nuclear targeting

Nanotechnology approaches to modulate transport, release, and bioavailability of classical and emerging therapeutics

Controlled release and bioavailability of oral nanoformulations

Sustained release and bioavailability of ocular drugs

Sustained release and bioavailability of dermal drugs

Sustained release and bioavailability of pulmonary drugs

Intracellular and extracellular transport vehicles

Nanotechnology in the development of innovative treatment strategies

Gene therapy

Protein- and DNA-based prophylactic vaccines


Photodynamic therapy

Image-guided therapy

Nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery in animal models of different cancers

Brain cancer

Breast cancer

Colon cancer

Lung cancer

Ovarian cancer

Pancreatic cancer

Skin cancer

Nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery in animal models of other critical human diseases


Cardiovascular diseases


Neurodegenerative diseases

Degenerative retinal diseases

Inflammatory bowel diseases

Obstructive respiratory diseases

Hepatic fibrosis and infections


Regeneration of tissues

Nanomedicine in clinical trials

Different phases of clinical trials

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in clinical trials

Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics in clinical trials (selected)

Approved and commercialized nanomedicine

Current safety issues: Biodegradability, reactivity, and clearance

Nanoparticle interaction with blood cells

Deformation of cellular membrane

Lysosomal rupture and release of contents

Disruption of cytoskeleton

Damage to nuclear DNA and proteins


About the Author

Dr. Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury is an associate professor and cluster leader of biomedical engineering under the Advanced Engineering Platform at Monash University (Sunway Campus). He obtained his Doctor of Engineering degree in 2003 at Tokyo Tech. Dr. Chowdhury has pioneered the development of pH-sensitive inorganic nanoparticles as smart tools for efficient and targeted intracellular delivery of genetic materials, gene-silencing elements, proteins, and classical anticancer drugs. He is currently applying this smart nanotechnology for the treatment of cancer, particularly breast carcinoma, and cardiovascular diseases, such as diabetes. Dr. Chowdhury holds six Japanese and US patents.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
MEDICAL / Pharmacy
SCIENCE / Biotechnology