Nanomaterials - structures with characteristic dimensions between 1 and 100 nm -exhibit a variety of unique and tunable chemical and physical properties that have made engineered nanoparticles central components in an array of emerging technologies. The use of nanotechnology is increasing; however its potential adverse effects on human health are not well understood. In order to accurately conduct hazard assessments, scientists need to understand the broad concepts that apply to pathways of dermal, oral, and respiratory exposure. This title is designed to elucidate those concepts and to examine the interaction of nanomaterials with the biological system, including membrane transfer, screening methods, and impact on major organs.
Table of Contents
Preface. Nanotoxicology:Laying a firm Foundation for Sustainable Nanotechnologies. Carbon Nanotube Structures and Compositions: Implications for Toxicological Studies. Effect-Oriented Physico-chemical Characterization Methods of Nanomaterials. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Nanoparticles which Determine their Potential Toxicity. Exposure Assessment for Safe Nanotechnology. Biodistribution of Nanoparticles: Insights from Drug Delivery. Nanoparticle Interactions with Biological Membranes: A Proposed Physical Mechanism. Placental Biological Barrier Models for Evaluation of Nanoparticle Transfer. Pharmacokinetics of Nanomaterials. Estimating Nanoparticle Dose in Humans: Issues and Challenges. Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Pulmonary Surfactants for In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Lessons from Ultrafine Diesel Exhaust Particles and Fine Mineral Dusts. Gene-Cellular Interactions of Nanomaterials: Genotoxicity to Genomics. Effect of Carbon Nanotube Exposure on Keratinocyte Protein Expression. Critical Issues in the Evaluation of Possible Adverse Pulmonary Effects Resulting from Airborne Nanoparticles. Carbon Nanotube Exposure and a Risk for Cardiovascular Effects. Hemostatic and Thrombotic Effects of Particulate Exposure: Assessing the Mechanisms. Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects of Nanoparticles. Understanding the Potential Neurotoxicology of Nanoparticles. Dermal Effects of Nanomaterials. Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Eye. Nanoparticle Interactions with Biological Systems and Subsequent Activation of Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms. Occurrences, Fate and Characterization of Nanoparticles in the Environment. Impact of Nanoparticles on Aquatic Organisms. The Environmental Implications of Nanomaterials. Nanotechnology and Toxicology: How Do We Move Forward?