Natural Stone and World Heritage: Delhi-Agra, India: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Natural Stone and World Heritage: Delhi-Agra, India

1st Edition

By Gurmeet Kaur, Sakoon N. Singh, Anuvinder Ahuja, Noor Dasmesh Singh

CRC Press

180 pages

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Hardback: 9780367251802
pub: 2020-03-01
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Description

This book discusses heritage stones which were used in the making of the architectonic heritage of Delhi and Agra, encompassing UNESCO world heritage sites and heritage sites designated as prominent by the Indian government. The most famous monument of the two cities is the ‘Taj Mahal’ of Agra.

The book focuses on the geological characteristics of the famous Makrana marble, red sandstone and other sandstone variants of the Vindhyan basin and Delhi quartzite, the most widely used stones in almost all the monuments, as well as on their quarries. The work also aims to sensitise the public to protecting and preserving the architectonic heritage of these two densely populated cities in India as repositories of our past cultures and traditions. Identifying the nature and provenance of stones/rocks used in construction will lead to better restoration for future generations, in light of the deterioration of architectonic heritage through various natural weathering agencies and anthropogenic activities.

The book will serve as a useful source book to economic geologists, geologists, archaeologists, architects, historians and stone industry operators specifically and to academic and non-academic communities, travellers and tourism industry operators in general. The book will benefit students, researchers, and rock enthusiasts spanning all age groups and academic levels.

Table of Contents

1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, International Union of Geological Sciences and Heritage Stone Subcommission

1.1 Introduction

1.2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

1.3 Stones: Symbolic of Architectural Heritage

1.3.1 World Heritage Monuments: Global Scenario

1.3.2 World Heritage Sites: Indian Scenario

1.4 International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS)

1.4.1 Heritage Stones Subcommission (HSS): Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR)

1.4.2 GHSR: Global Scenario

1.4.3 GHSR: Indian Scenario

2 Delhi and Agra vis-à-vis monuments

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Delhi and its Monuments

2.2.1 1st City: Lal Kot

2.2.2 2nd City: Qila Rai Pithora and Mehrauli

2.2.3 3rd City: Siri

2.2.4 4th City: Tughlquabad

2.2.5 5th City: Jahanpanah

2.2.6 6th City: Firozabad

2.2.7 7th City: Shergarh

2.2.8 8th City: Shahjahanabad

2.2.9 9th City: New Delhi

2.3 Agra and its Monuments

2.3.1 Chini Ka Rauza

2.3.2 Itmad-ud-Daulah

2.3.3 The Jama Masjid

3 Repository of Stones used in Delhi and Agra UNESCO Sites: Aravalli Mountain Belt and Vindhyan Basin

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Geographic Location of Delhi and Agra

3.3 Brief Geological Account of Delhi and Agra

3.4 UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Delhi and Agra vis-à-vis Aravalli Mountain Belt (AMB) and Vindhyan Basin

3.4.1 Makrana Marble of Delhi Supergroup

3.4.2 Bhander sandstone of Rajasthan Sector Vindhyan Supergroup

3.4.3 Delhi quartzite of the Delhi Supergroup

3.4.4 Petrography and Mineralogy of Makrana Marble

3.4.5 Petrography and Mineralogy of Vindhyan Sandstone

3.4.6 Petrography and Mineralogy of Delhi Quartzite.

4 UNESCO World Heritage sites of Delhi and Agra: An Account

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

4.2.1 Qutb Minar

4.2.2 Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Screen and Iron Pillar

4.2.3 Alai Darwaza and Alai Minar

4.2.4 Tombs of Iltutmish and Iman Zamin

4.2.5 Alauddin Khalji’s Tomb and Madrassa

4.3 Humayun’s Tomb and adjoining monuments, Delhi

4.3.1 Humayun’s Tomb

4.3.2 Neela Gumbad

4.3.3 South Gate and the West Gate

4.3.4 Bu Halima’s Tomb and garden and Isa Khan’s Tomb

4.3.5. Arab Serai, Hammam and Barber’s Tomb

4.4 Red Fort Complex, Delhi

4.4.1 The Lahore Gate and the Delhi Gate

4.4.2 Chatta Chowk and Naubat Khana

4.4.3 Diwan-i-Am

4.4.4 Mumtaz Mahal, Rang Mahal, Khas Mahal, Diwan-i-Khas and Nahr-i-Bahisht

4.4.5 Sawan, Bhadon Pavillion, Hayat Baksh Bagh and Zafar Mahal

4.4.6 Moti Masjid, Hammam and Baoli

4.5 Taj Mahal and adjoining monuments, Agra

4.5.1 Taj Mahal

4.5.2 Mosque and Guest House

4.5.3 Main Gateway

4.5.4 Char Bagh

4.6 Agra Fort and its monuments, Agra

4.6.1 Amar Singh, Delhi and Water Gate

4.6.2 Akbari Mahal

4.6.3 Jahangir Mahal and Jahangir’s Hauz/Bath

4.6.4 The Khas Mahal, Musamman Burj, Sheesh Mahal and Diwan-i-Khas

4.6.5 Diwan-i-Am and Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque)

5 Historical quarries of the Makrana Marble, the Vindhyan sandstone and the Delhi quartzite vis-à-vis functional quarries

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Account of historical quarries used in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Delhi and Agra

5.3 Current Status of Makrana Marble deposits and quarries

5.4 Commercial (Trade) varieties of Makrana Marble

5.5 Current Status of Vindhyan sandstone deposits of eastern Rajasthan

5.6 Commercial (Trade) varieties of Vindhyan sandstone

5.7 Delhi Quartzite and quarries

5.8 Other natural rocks and stones used in the UNESCO Monuments of Delhi and Agra

6 Preservation, Conservation and Restoration of UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Delhi and Agra

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Last 100 years and beyond of conservation activity in India

6.3 Status of Conservation, Preservation and Restoration practices

6.4 Current State of Conservation, Preservation and Restoration of UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Delhi and Agra

7 Conclusions

References

Glossary

About the Authors

Dr. Gurmeet Kaur is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. She has been teaching igneous and metamorphic petrology and economic geology courses to the graduate and under graduate students for the past 11 years at her University. She has been a post-doctoral fellow at the Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada consecutively for three summers of 2013-2015. Presently, she is one of the Vice-Chairs representing south Asia in the Heritage Stone Subcommission (HSS) of IUGS. She is also a core member of Publishing Committee of IUGS since August, 2018. The author is passionately engaged in promoting heritage stones from India. Currently, she is working on numerous heritage stones from India which have been used as resource for the construction of architectonic heritage reflecting the cultural and architectural ethos during different periods in the history of India. In her own small way the author wants to contribute towards popularizing heritage stones from around the globe amongst the people of all walks of life through the outreach activities of Heritage Stone Subcommission. The book series on the Natural Stones and World Heritage is an appropriate platform for the author to bring to fore the heritage stones used in the making of the world heritage sites of the historic cities of Delhi and Agra from India.

Anuvinder Kaur is currently working with the American Embassy School, New Delhi. She teaches Robotics and Indian Studies in middle school and also has a significant role in the technology department. Apart from this, Anuvinder is also the High School yearbook advisor and has been in this role for 8 years. She holds a Master’s degree in Multidisciplinary Studies from SUNY, Buffalo State.

Anuvinder loves to travel and has a keen interest in the history, architecture and cultural diversity of India. She has been to several architectonic heritage sites in India and has been part of several geological field trips which include: Basalt quarries in Maharashtra, marble, sandstone and limestone quarries in Rajasthan. She is currently involved with a project on seven cities of Delhi with her school children. Her travel enriches her teaching experience. Besides traveling, photography is her passion too. She has contributed photos of the architectonic heritage and quarries for academic publications as well.

Sakoon N. Singh teaches English Literature at DAV College, Sector 10, Chandigarh. An alumnus of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), she has been a recipient of Fulbright grant from the US Dept of Home, at the University of Texas at Austin, USA. She has been selected as Associate fellow at the IIAS, Shimla for the forthcoming year. Her forthcoming novel is being published by Rupa this year.

She has written for journals such as DIALOG, FAMILIES, Museindia, Abstracts of Sikh Studies and E3W Review of Books (University of Texas) for which she did a stint as Editor, South Asia Section. One of her essays has been included in a Routledge Anthology on Cultural Studies. She has contributed to publications like The Tribune, Hindustan Times, DNA and The Quint. Her areas of interest include: Indian Writing in English and translation, Punjab studies, Indian drama, aesthetics and Cultural Studies.

Noor Dasmesh Singh heads a leading cross-disciplinary design firm NOOR Architects Consultants out of Mohali, Chandigarh. In a short span the practice has serviced a diverse client base from Governmental agencies, Corporate to Private clients. Their eclectic mix of projects range from large scale infrastructure consultancy and advisory to designing museums, private residences, interior architecture and even product design.

Singh started out his professional journey in the mid-2000s from Industrial Design Studio at IIT Delhi and later in London working with an international Strategy and Design consultancy firm DEGW. Based there, he carried out prestigious assignments in the UK, New Zealand and the Middle East including the British Museum masterplan, offices for Google, and developmental works for television giants like BBC and ITV. Noor completed his Bachelor’s degree in Architecture (B Arch.- 5 years) at the Government College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda, India. Continuing his professional education, Singh attended Executive Education courses at Harvard University, Boston USA and the Architectural Association AA, London.

A line-up of prestigious assignments that they are currently handling include a unique Museum of Anatomy for PGIMER Hospital in Chandigarh, the northern region’s first Eco-Tourism Project at Siswan in the outskirts of Chandigarh for the Government of Punjab, a 300 acre waterfront masterplan International Tourist Destination at Ranjit Sagar Dam in Pathankot in collaboration with UK-based design firm BDP, and a Feasibility assignment for five Ropeway Sites in Uttarakhand collaborating with leading advisory firm CB Richard Ellis. Master planning is underway for a large 3200 acres Industrial Model Township IMT together with Ernst & Young for the Government of Haryana at Delhi NCR, few private residences and farmhouses in Chandigarh, Ludhiana and other parts of Punjab.

Singh believes in a collaborative model of working, hence associating with a gamut of national and international teams. He is a firm believer that associations add value and a unique richness to each assignment for their esteemed client base.

About the Series

Natural Stone and World Heritage

This is a series of short books on specialized topics that fall under the overarching theme of geological and cultural heritage of stone, the built environment, and the geological and engineering characteristics of the dimension and ornamental stones. The books deal with well documented case studies of construction and restoration works at one or more specific sites and/or monuments related to World Heritage, providing detailed overviews of construction techniques, documentation of the materials utilized during the historical period in which the monuments were built, and specific conservation / preservation works that have been carried out. The books highlight the importance of natural stone in the preservation of cultural heritage in a sustainable way: moreover, natural stones (heritage stones) often represent the tangible trace of culture development in specific areas, including important activities like quarrying. The books are closely linked to UNESCO World Heritage sites around the world.

OBJECTIVES
Preservation of historic buildings, monuments and historic sites is one of the most challenging problems facing modern civilization. It involves various cultural, humanistic, social, technical and economic aspects in inextricably complex relationships and patterns. The complexity of the topic is such that a shared framework of reference is still lacking among art historians, archeologists, architects, geologists, structural and geotechnical engineers, chemists and biologists. This is proved by the fact that, despite there being exemplary cases of the preservation of structural components with retention of their static and architectural function, as a material witness of the knowledge and the culture and the construction techniques of the original historical period, there are still examples of uncritical confidence in modern technology which leads to the replacement of previous structures with new ones, which only preserve an iconic appearance of the original monument.

For this reason publishing short books on specialized topics, such as well documented case studies of construction and restoration works using natural stone at one or more specific sites or of a specific monument, or detailed overviews of construction techniques, intended to provide detailed information on the historical period in which the monuments was built, or specific conservation/preservation works, will be of great value.

MAIN FIELDS COVERED BY THE BOOK SERIES
Geology, geotechnical engineering, architecture, art history, archaeology, cultural heritage management, restoration and preservation.

ADVISORY EDITORIAL BOARD
Brian Marker, Consultant, UK
Giovanna Antonella Dino, University of Torino, Italy
Gurmeet Kaur, Center of Advanced Study in Geology, Panjab University, India
Patrick N. Wyse Jackson, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

READERSHIP
The audience for these books will consist of professionals and academics in the wider fields of Geology, Architecture, Cultural Resources Management, and particularly those involved in Art History, History of Architecture, Geotechnical and Mining Engineering, Archaeology, Restoration and Cultural Heritage management, and will be written in terms that are accessible by the interested wider public.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
ARC014000
ARCHITECTURE / Historic Preservation / General
ARC014010
ARCHITECTURE / Historic Preservation / Restoration Techniques
SCI031000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TEC005000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC063000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Structural