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Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
Principles and Practices




ISBN 9781574440096
Published April 25, 1996 by CRC Press
160 Pages

 
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Book Description

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - known in the industry as NORM -has become an important part of the regular training required for workers in oil and gas production, refinery and petrochemical manufacturing, and in certain types of mining. Proper handling of NORM-contaminated wastes and use of appropriate radiation detection and protective equipment are now understood to be important components of good worker safety programs.
Until now, no practical, easy-to-read, book was available to supplement worker training courses on NORM management. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials: Principles and Practices fills this void by providing, in a single publication, an ideal reference for industry managers, supervisors and line personnel. The book stresses the proper handling and management of NORM contaminated wastes and provides a firm understanding of the chemical properties of radioactive agents, their toxicological effects, and the appropriate containerization and disposal methods for these materials.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to NORM
The Origins of NORM
Production of NORM
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Radioactivity and Radioactive Materials
Introduction to the Atom
Atomic Composition and Structure
Atomic Properties
The Nuclear Force
Chapter 3: Origin and Classification of Radiation
Radiation
Gamma Radiation
Alpha Particles
Beta Particles
Modes of Decay
Measuring Radiation
Measuring Radioactivity
Modifying Units-Standard Scientific Notation
Half Lives of Radioactive Materials
Chapter 4: Biological and Health Effects of Radiation
Introduction
Ionization
The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Body Tissue
Radiosensitivity
The Biological Effects of Single Large Exposures to Ionizing Radiation (Acute Effects)
The Biological Effects of Continual or Repeated Exposure to Low-Levels of Ionizing Radiation (Chronic Effects)
Radiation Dose / Response
Chapter 5: Radiation in the World Around Us
Introduction
Natural Sources of Ionizing Radiation
Artificial Sources of Ionizing Radiation
Occupational Radiation Exposures Due to NORM
Chapter 6: Measurement of Radiation
Mechanisms for Radiation Detection
Gas Filled Detectors
Scintillation Detectors
Personnel Monitoring Devices
Chapter 7: Surveying and Sampling NORM
Introduction
Checking and Testing Survey Instruments
Maintenance and Care of Survey Instruments
Performing Radiation Surveys
Performing Contamination Surveys
Counts Per Minute vs. Decays Per Minute
Monitoring Personnel for Contamination
Personnel Decontamination
Sampling NORM
Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity
Chapter 8: Radiation Protection
Introduction-The ALARA Principle
Protection from External Radiation Exposure-Time, Distance, and Shielding
Protection from Contamination
Protective Clothing
Protection from Airborne Radioactive Material
Emergency Response
Monitoring for Exposure
Dose Limits
Education
Chapter 9: Glossary of Terms
Appendix A. Louisiana NORM Regulations
Appendix B. Texas NORM Regulations
Appendix C. Other States Regulating NORM
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

T. Rick Irvin