Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials: Principles and Practices, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Principles and Practices, 1st Edition

By T. Rick Irvin

CRC Press

160 pages

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Hardback: 9781574440096
pub: 1996-04-25
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780203746042
pub: 2018-12-19
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Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - known in the industry as NORM -has become an important part of the regular training required for workers in oil and gas production, refinery and petrochemical manufacturing, and in certain types of mining. Proper handling of NORM-contaminated wastes and use of appropriate radiation detection and protective equipment are now understood to be important components of good worker safety programs.

Until now, no practical, easy-to-read, book was available to supplement worker training courses on NORM management. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials: Principles and Practices fills this void by providing, in a single publication, an ideal reference for industry managers, supervisors and line personnel. The book stresses the proper handling and management of NORM contaminated wastes and provides a firm understanding of the chemical properties of radioactive agents, their toxicological effects, and the appropriate containerization and disposal methods for these materials.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to NORM

The Origins of NORM

Production of NORM

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Radioactivity and Radioactive Materials

Introduction to the Atom

Atomic Composition and Structure

Atomic Properties

The Nuclear Force

Chapter 3: Origin and Classification of Radiation


Gamma Radiation

Alpha Particles

Beta Particles

Modes of Decay

Measuring Radiation

Measuring Radioactivity

Modifying Units-Standard Scientific Notation

Half Lives of Radioactive Materials

Chapter 4: Biological and Health Effects of Radiation



The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Body Tissue


The Biological Effects of Single Large Exposures to Ionizing Radiation (Acute Effects)

The Biological Effects of Continual or Repeated Exposure to Low-Levels of Ionizing Radiation (Chronic Effects)

Radiation Dose / Response

Chapter 5: Radiation in the World Around Us


Natural Sources of Ionizing Radiation

Artificial Sources of Ionizing Radiation

Occupational Radiation Exposures Due to NORM

Chapter 6: Measurement of Radiation

Mechanisms for Radiation Detection

Gas Filled Detectors

Scintillation Detectors

Personnel Monitoring Devices

Chapter 7: Surveying and Sampling NORM


Checking and Testing Survey Instruments

Maintenance and Care of Survey Instruments

Performing Radiation Surveys

Performing Contamination Surveys

Counts Per Minute vs. Decays Per Minute

Monitoring Personnel for Contamination

Personnel Decontamination

Sampling NORM

Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

Chapter 8: Radiation Protection

Introduction-The ALARA Principle

Protection from External Radiation Exposure-Time, Distance, and Shielding

Protection from Contamination

Protective Clothing

Protection from Airborne Radioactive Material

Emergency Response

Monitoring for Exposure

Dose Limits


Chapter 9: Glossary of Terms

Appendix A. Louisiana NORM Regulations

Appendix B. Texas NORM Regulations

Appendix C. Other States Regulating NORM


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Environmental Science