Neurodegenerative Disease and Micronutrients: Prevention and Treatment, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Neurodegenerative Disease and Micronutrients

Prevention and Treatment, 1st Edition

By Kedar N. Prasad

CRC Press

350 pages

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Description

The bookproposes that a preparation of antioxidants and micronutrients, in combination with standard therapy, may reduce progression and improve management better than standard therapy alone for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease, as well as PTSD, traumatic brain injury, concussions, and cerebral vascular insufficiency. The book presents the latest research on the effects of micronutrients and recommends formulations for use in combination with standard therapies for these neurodegenerative diseases and conditions.

Table of Contents

Evolution, Sources, and Functions of Antioxidant Systems

Introduction

Evolution of Antioxidant Systems Antioxidant Systems

Antioxidant Systems

Brief History of Discovery of Some Micronutrients

Sources and Forms of Vitamins

Solubility of Antioxidants and Polyphenols

Distribution of Antioxidants in the Body

Storing of Antioxidants

Can Antioxidants Be Destroyed during Cooking?

Absorption of Antioxidant and Its Significance

Functions of Individual Antioxidants

Current Controversies about Antioxidants in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

Antioxidant Defense Systems

Known Functions of Antioxidants and Polyphenolic Compounds

Conclusions

Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: Their Reduction by Micronutrients

Introduction

Oxidative Stress

Oxidation and Reduction Processes

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress Optimally

Factors Regulating Response of Nrf2

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Stimulation during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Interpretation of Inhibition of Exercise-Induced Nrf2 Activation by Individual Antioxidant

NAC-Effects on Murine Alveolar Cells in Culture

Activation of Nrf2 by Diet Restriction

Inflammation

Types of Inflammation

Products of Inflammatory Reactions

How to Reduce Chronic Inflammation Optimally

Conclusions

Etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease: Prevention and Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Prevalence, Incidence, and Cost of AD

Cost of Health and Long-Term Care Services

Types of Dementia

Neuropathology of AD

Causes of AD

External Risk Factors for the Development of AD

Internal Risk Factors for Development and Progression of AD

Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Generation and Aggregation of Aβ1–42 Peptides from APP

Cholesterol-Induced Generation of Beta-Amyloids

Mutated APP, Presenilin-1, and Presenilin-2 Genes Cause Increased Production of Beta-Amyloids

Increased Levels of Markers of Chronic Inflammation in AD

P-Tau Protein in AD

Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Neurodegeneration in AD

Genetic Defects in Idiopathic AD

Neuroglobin

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress Optimally

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Stimulation during Acute and

Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in AD

Laboratory and Clinical Studies with Antioxidants in AD

B Vitamins

Polyphenolic Compounds

Prevention of AD

Problems of Using a Single Nutrient in AD

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in AD

Rational for Using Low-Dose NSAID in AD Prevention

Can the Familial AD Be Prevented or Delayed?

Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Low-Doses of

NSAID for Primary Prevention of AD

Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Low-Doses of

NSAID for Secondary Prevention

Current Treatments of AD

Recommended Micronutrients and Low Dose of NSAID in Combination with

Standard Therapy in Patients with Dementia with or without AD

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for AD

Conclusions

Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease: Prevention and Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Prevalence and Incidence

Cost

Neuropathology and Symptoms

Causes of PD

External Factors That Influence Risk of Developing PD

Internal Factors Influencing Development and Progression of PD

Increased Oxidative Stress in PD

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in PD

Increased Chronic Inflammation in PD

Mutations or Overexpression in PD-Related Genes

DJ-1 Gene

Alpha-Synuclein Gene

PTEN-Induced Putative Kinase 1 Gene

Parkin Gene

Mutation in Lysosomal Gene SMPD1

Proteomic Profiling of Substantia Nigra in PD

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress Optimally

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Stimulation during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in Parkinson’s Disease

Laboratory and Human Studies in PD after Treatment with

Antioxidants and Polyphenolic Compounds

Studies on In Vitro PD Models

Studies on Human PD

NAD/NADH

Prevention of PD

Problems of Using Single Antioxidant in PD Patients

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in PD

Rationale for Using NSAID in PD Prevention

Can the Familial PD Be Prevented or Delayed?

Recommended Micronutrient Supplement in Combination with

Low Doses of NSAID for Primary Prevention of PD

Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Low Doses of

NSAID for Secondary Prevention

Treatments of PD

Rationale for Using Micronutrient Supplement and NSAID in

Combination with Standard Therapy in PD Patients

Recommended Micronutrient Supplement and Low Doses of NSAID in

Combination with Standard Therapy in PD Patients

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for PD

Conclusions

Huntington’s Disease: Prevention and Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost

Huntington Gene

Symptoms and Neuropathology of HD

Animal Models of HD

Increased Oxidative Stress in HD

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HD

Increased Chronic Inflammation in HD

Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in HD

Glutamate Transporter Proteins in HD

Neurotransmitter Receptors

Kynurenine Pathway in HD

Protection by Growth Factors in HD

Transcriptional Deregulation in HD

Calretinin Protein Protects Neurons in HD

Reduced Acetylcholine Release in HD

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress Optimally

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Stimulation during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in HD

Laboratory and Clinical Studies on Antioxidants and Polyphenolic Compounds

Problems of Using a Single Antioxidant in HD Patients

Rationale for Using Multiple Antioxidants in a Micronutrient Preparation

Can the HD Be Prevented or Delayed?

Prevention and/or Delaying the Onset of HD

Proposed Prevention and/or Delaying Strategies for the Onset of HD

Current Treatments of HD

Medications for Psychiatric Disorders

Clinical Studies with Additional Drugs in HD

Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Standard Therapy

Recommendations for Diet and Lifestyle Changes

Conclusions

References

Etiology of Post-traumatic Stress Disorders: Prevention and Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Prevalence, Incidence, and Cost of PTSD

Neuropathology

Major Biochemical Events

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress, Chronic Inflammation, and Glutamate Release

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Generated during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in PTSD

Activation of Nrf2 by Diet Restriction

Studies on Antioxidants in PTSD

Proposed PTSD Prevention Studies

Problems of Using Single Micronutrient in PTSD

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in PTSD Prevention

Proposed Micronutrients for Primary PTSD Prevention

Toxicity of Ingredients in Proposed Micronutrient Preparation

Proposed Micronutrients for Secondary Prevention in High-Risk Populations

Current Standard Therapy for PTSD

Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Standard Therapy in PTSD

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for PTSD

Conclusions

Traumatic Brain Injury: Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Incidence and Cost of TBI

Causes of Severe TBI

Symptoms

Neuropathology

Scoring System of Severity of TBI

Risk of PTSD Associated with TBI

Biochemical Events That Contribute to the Progression of Damage after Severe TBI

Evidence for Increased Oxidative Stress after Severe TBI

Mitochondrial Dysfunction after Severe TBI

Evidence for Increased Levels of Markers of Inflammation after Severe TBI

Evidence for Increased Release of Glutamate after Severe TBI

Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases after Severe TBI

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress, Chronic Inflammation, and Glutamate Release

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Generated during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in TBI

Studies on Effects of Single Antioxidants after Severe TBI

Effects of Preparation of Multiple Micronutrients in Troops with TBI

Antioxidants Reduce Glutamate Release

Prevention Strategies for Severe TBI

Problems of Using Single Micronutrients after Severe TBI

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients for Reducing the Progression of TBI

Proposed Micronutrients for Primary Prevention of TBI

Toxicity of Ingredients in Proposed Micronutrient Preparation

Proposed Micronutrients for Secondary Prevention in Combination with Standard Therapy

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for Severe TBI

Conclusions

Concussive Brain Injuries: Prevention and Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Incidence

Cost

Causes and Symptoms of Concussive Injury

Long-Term Health Consequences of Concussions

Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress, Chronic Inflammation, and Glutamate Release

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Generated during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in Concussive Brain Injury

Prevention Strategies for Concussive Injury

Problems of Using Single Micronutrients in Concussive Injury

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients for Reducing

Development and Progression of Concussive Injury

Evidence Supporting Effectiveness of Micronutrient Preparation

Proposed Micronutrients for Primary Prevention of Concussive Injury

Toxicity of Ingredients in Proposed Micronutrient Preparation

Proposed Micronutrients for Secondary Prevention in Combination with

Standard Therapy after Concussions

Recommended Micronutrient Preparation before and after Concussive

Injury for High School Athletes

Recommended Micronutrient Preparation before and after Concussive

Injury for Professional/College Sports

Concept of PAMARA (Protection as Much as Reasonably Achievable)

Conclusions

Cerebrovascular Insufficiency: Improved Management by Micronutrients

Introduction

Incidence and Cost

Classifications

Sensitivity of Brain Cells to Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

Increased Oxidative Stress

Increased Inflammation

Increased Glutamate Release

How to Reduce Oxidative Stress Optimally

Differential Response of Nrf2 to ROS Stimulation during Acute and Chronic Oxidative Stress

Nrf2 in Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

Protection of Brain Injury by Antioxidants in Animal Models

Polyphenolic Compounds in Animal Models

Protection of Brain Injury by Antioxidants in Humans

Problems of Using a Single Micronutrient during Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in Reducing Brain

Damage after Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

Reducing Brain Damage after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Recommended Micronutrients for Reducing Brain Damage

during Acute Phase of Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

Toxicity of Micronutrients

Recommended Micronutrients for Reducing Brain Damage during

Chronic Phase of Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for Patients with Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Conclusions

References

Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intakes/Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Selected Micronutrients

Introduction

RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances )

DRI (Dietary Reference Intake)

AI (Adequate Intake)

UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level)

Conclusions

About the Author

Kedar N. Prasad is thechief scientific officer of Premier Micronutrient Corporation. He earned a MS in zoology from the University of Bihar in India and a PhD in radiation biology from the University of Iowa. His postdoctoral training was at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He was professor at the University of Colorado Medical School and served as a president of the International Society for Nutrition and Cancer. Dr. Prasad was invited by the Nobel Committee to nominate a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Medicine in the early 1980’s. His interests include radiation protection, and the role of nutrition in cancer and neurological diseases. He has published more than 200 papers in peer-reviewed journals and authored or edited 25 books.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED004000
MEDICAL / Alternative Medicine
MED056000
MEDICAL / Neurology
MED060000
MEDICAL / Nutrition