Much has been written about the laogai (sometimes likened to the Soviet gulag) in the People's Republic of China. Depending on the source, the prisons are described as nonexistent, enlightened institutions, or hellish places that subject the inmates to degradation and misery. The system is commonly thought of (by admirers and critics alike) as having a measurable impact on the national economy and providing significant resources to the state. Based on research in classified documents and extensive interviews with former prisoners, judicial personnel, and other insiders, and featuring case studies dealing with the three northwestern provinces, this book examines such assertions on the basis of the facts about this underexamined subject in order to arrive at a detailed, objective, and realistic picture of the situation. In the case of each province under study, the authors discuss the history of the provincial prison system and the impact that each has had at the macro, meso, and micro levels.
This book includes every Supreme Court case relevant to elections and political representation from the Court's beginnings to 2001, including the 2001 decision in Cook v. Gralike that limited citizens' rights to instruct Federal representatives. It is a primary document reference book organized topically in sixteen chapters. Every case is included either as a full (edited) opinion, extensive excerpts of the opinion, or a detailed description of the case. As with the companion volume on gender and sexual equality, using this single volume a researcher can see how American legal history on the topic played out in its entirety. A Table of Cases, relevant Federal statutes, and an extensive bibliography further enhance the volume's usefulness.