Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications  book cover
1st Edition

Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications

ISBN 9781439850664
Published June 5, 2012 by CRC Press
416 Pages 70 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are the principal performance requirements.

Presenting cutting-edge battery design techniques backed by mathematical expressions and derivations wherever possible, the book supplies an authoritative account of emerging application requirements for small, lightweight, high-reliability rechargeable batteries—particularly for portable and implantable medical devices and diagnostic capsules. It devotes a chapter to fuel cells and describes the three distinct types of practical fuel cells, including those that use aqueous electrolytes, molten electrolytes, and solid electrolytes.

  • Identifies critical performance parameters and limits of rechargeable batteries, including state of charge, depth of discharge, cycle life, discharge rate, and open-circuit voltage
  • Provides a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics
  • Highlights performance capabilities of long-life, low-cost, rechargeable batteries, for particular applications in battlefield systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs )

A.R. Jha, author of 10 books on alternative energy and other topics, outlines rechargeable battery requirements for electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). He identifies the unique materials for electrolytes, cathodes, and anodes that are most cost-effective with significant improvements in weight, size, efficiency, reliability, safety, and longevity. Since electrode kinetics play a key role in the efficient operation of fuel cells, the book also provides you with a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics.

Table of Contents

Current Status of Rechargeable Batteries and Fuel Cells
Rechargeable Batteries
Fundamental Aspects of a Rechargeable Battery
     Critical Performance Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries 
     Capabilities of Widely Used Rechargeable Batteries in Commercial Applications 
     Recycling of Batteries 
          Toxicity of Materials Used in the Manufacture of Rechargeable Batteries 
          Safe Toxicity Limits for Workers
     Three Main Characteristics of a Rechargeable Battery 
     Cost-Effective Justification for the Deployment of a Specific Rechargeable Battery for a Specified Application 
          Techniques to Improve Battery Performance in Terms of Weight and Cost 
          Why Use Pb-Acid Batteries for Automobiles? 
          Description of Flow Batteries
Rechargeable Batteries Irrespective of Power Capability 
     Rechargeable Batteries for Low- and Moderate-Power Applications
Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications 
     High-Power Batteries for Commercial Applications 
     Critical Role of Ni-Cd in Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft 
     Benefits of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft
          Impact of Temperature on Discharge Capacity of Ni-MH Batteries 
          Charging Procedure for a Ni-MH Battery 
          Degradation Factors in Ni-MH Battery Performance 
     Thermal Batteries for Aerospace and Defense Applications 
          Batteries for Space Applications 
     Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial Applications 
           Ni-Zn Batteries for Commercial Applications
     Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
          Test Requirements for Rechargeable Batteries Needed for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
          Predicting the Battery Life of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
          Performance Capabilities of Batteries Currently Used for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
     Batteries Using Th in-Film and Nanotechnologies 
     TF Microbatteries 
     Charge-Discharge Cycles and Charging Time of Low-Power Batteries 
     Structural Configuration for Low-Power Batteries 
     Most Popular Materials Used for Low-Power Batteries 
          Low-Power Standard Cells 
          Miniature Primary Batteries 
     Low-Power Batteries Using Nanotechnology 
     Paper Batteries Using Nanotechnology 
Fuel Cells
     Description of the Most Popular Fuel Cell Types and Their Configurations 
     Types of Fuel Cells

Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites
Onboard Electrical Power System 
     Electrical Power-Bus Design Configuration
     Solar-Array Panels 
          Solar Panel Performance Requirements to Charge the Space-Based Batteries 
Battery Power Requirements and Associated Critical Components 
     Solar-Array Performance Requirements
     Electrical Power Requirements from the Solar Arrays during Dark Periods 
     Solar Panel Orientation Requirements to Achieve Optimum Power from the Sun
     Solar-Array Configurations Best Suited for Spacecraft or Communications Satellite 
     Direct Energy Transfer System
Cost-Effective Design Criterion for Battery-Type Power Systems for Spacecraft 
     Method of Comparison for Optimum Selection of Power System for a Spacecraft 
          Step-byStep Approach for Power System Performance
          Modeling Requirements to Determine I-V Characteristics 
          Impact on Battery Electrical Parameters from Onboard Charging and Discharging
Spacecraft Power System Reliability 
     Failure Rates for Various System Components
     Failure Rate Estimation 
     Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using CC and PWM Regulator Techniques 
     Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using DET System, CC, and Battery Booster Techniques 
     Weight and Cost Penalties Associated with Redundant Systems 
          Total System Weight and Cost as a Function of Mission Length 
          Reliability Degradation with the Increase in Mission Duration 
          Increase in Weight and Cost due to Redundant Systems
Ideal Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites 
     Typical Power Requirements for Space-Based Batteries 
     Aging Eff ect Critical in Space-Based Batteries 
Performance Capabilities and Battery Power Requirements for the Latest Commercial and Military Satellite Systems
     Commercial Communication Satellite Systems 
          Performance Capabilities of the Commercial Communications Satellite Systems
Military Satellites for Communications, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Target Tracking 
     Military Communications Satellites and Their Capabilities 
          DSCS-III Communication Satellite System 
          Power Generation, Conditioning, and Storage Requirements 
     MILSATCOM System 
     European Communications Satellite System
Batteries Best Suited to Power Satellite Communications Satellites 
     Rechargeable Batteries Most Ideal for Communications Satellites 
          Performance Capabilities of Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries for Space Applications 
          Performance Parameters of Ni-H2 Batteries 
          Performance Capabilities of Ag-Zn Batteries 
          Space Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Fuel Cell Technology 
     Classifications of Fuel Cells 
          Aqueous Fuel Cell Using Specific Electrolyte 
          Fuel Cells Using Semisolid Electrolyte 
          Fuel Cells Using Molten Electrolyte 
     Classifications of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes
Performance Capabilities of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes 
     High-Temperature Fuel Cells with Semisolid Molten Electrolyte
Low-Temperature Fuel Cells Using Various Electrolytes 
     Performance of Low-Temperature and Low-Pressure Fuel Cells Using Aqueous Electrolyte 
     Output Power Capability of Aqueous Fuel Cells
Fuel Cells Using a Combination of Fuels 
     Performance of Liquid-Liquid Fuel Cell Design
Fuel Cell Designs for Multiple Applications 
     Fuel Cells for Electric Storage Battery Applications
     DSK-Based Fuel Cells Using Hydrogen-Based DSK Electrodes and Operating under Harsh Conditions 
          Performance of DSK-Based Fuel Cells with Monolayer DSK Electrodes
Ion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 
     Performance Specifications for IEM Fuel Cells and Batteries for Space Applications 
     Fuel Cells Using Low-Cost, Porous Silicon Substrate Materials 
          Hydrogen-Oxygen Power Fuel Cell Using Porous Silicon Structure 
          Fuel Cell Reactions and Thermodynamic Efficiencies 
          DMFC Devices Using a PEM Structure 
          Silicon-Based DMFC Fuel Cells
Potential Applications of Fuel Cells 
     Fuel Cells for Military and Space Applications 
          Fuel Cells for Battlefi eld Applications 
          Deployment of Fuel Cells in UAVs Acting as Electronic Drones Capable of Providing Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Intelligence Gathering, and Missile Attack Capabilities 
          Why Fuel Cells for Counterinsurgency Applications? 
Fuel Cells for Aircraft Applications 
     Performance Capabilities and Limitations of All-Electric Aircraft or Vehicles 
     Fuel Cells for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications 
     Fuel Cells for Automobiles, Buses, and Scooters 
          Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature H2-O2 Fuel Cells 
          Design Aspects and Performance Parameters of a Low-Cost, Moderate-Temperature Fuel Cell 
          Design Requirements for Cost-Effective Fuel Cells 
     Ideal Fuel Cells for the Average Homeowner 
          Design Requirements for Fuel Cells for Homeowners
          Compact Fuel Cells for Cars, Scooters, and Motor Bikes 
          Fuel Cells for Portable Electric Power Systems 
     Fuel Cells Capable of Operating in Ultra-High-Temperature Environments 
          Types of Materials Used in Ultra-High-Temperature Fuel Cells 
          Solid Electrolyte Most Ideal for Fuel Cells Operating at Higher Temperatures (600–1,000°C) 
               Molten Electrolytes Offer Improved Efficiencies in High-Temperature Operations 
               Performance Capability of Porous Electrodes 
     Electrode Kinetics and Their Impact on High-Power Fuel Cell Performance 
     Polarization for Chemisorption-Desorption Rates
Fuel Cell Requirements for Electric Power Plant Applications 
     Performance Requirements of Fuel Cells for Power Plants

Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
Chronological Development History of Early Electric Vehicles and Their Performance Parameters 
     Electric-Based Transportation Means 
Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Developed Earlier by Various Companies and Their Performance Specifications 
     Aptera Motors 
     Tesla Motors 
     Baker Motors
Development History of the Latest Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Types and Their Performance Capabilities and Limitations 
     GM Chevy Volt 
          Ford Focus 
          Ford Escape 
          Ford C-Max and Ford C-Max Energi 
Performance Requirements of Various Rechargeable Batteries 
     Battery Pack Energy Requirements
     Battery Materials and Associated Costs 
          Materials for Rechargeable Batteries Deployed in EVs and EHVs 
          Impact of Road and Driving Conditions on Battery Charging Times and Costs 
Materials for Rechargeable Batteries 
     Materials Requirements for Three Functional Components of the Li-Ion Battery 
     Major Performance Characteristic of Li-Ion Batteries 
     Characteristic of Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries 
     Zinc-Air Rechargeable Fuel Cells for EVs and HEVs
     Energy Density Levels for Various Rechargeable Batteries 
          Li-Ion Battery Pack Configuration 
          Some Unique Problems Associated with Li-Ion Battery Packs 
     Design Concept Incorporating the Smart Grid Technology 
          Charging-Load Impact on the Utility Gridlines 
          Typical Charging Rates for Rechargeable Battery Packs and Electrical Load 
     Materials and Their Properties Best Suited for Rechargeable Batteries 
          Major Material Costs for a 100 Ah High-Energy Rechargeable Battery Pack 
          Estimated Costs for Battery Packs Widely Used in All-Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
     Impact of Component Costs on the Procurement Cost of Battery Packs 
          Estimated Current and Future Component Costs 
          Material Cost Estimates
Critical Role of Rare Earth Materials in the Development of EVs and HEVs 
      Identification of Various Rare Earth Materials Used in EVs and HEVs
     Impact of Future Rare Earth Materials on the Performance of EVs and HEVs 
     Costs Associated with Refining, Processing, and Quality Control Inspection of Rare Earth Materials

Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial, Space, and Medical Applications
Low-Power Battery Configurations 
     Low-Power Batteries Using Cylindrical Configuration 
     Carbon-Zinc Primary Low-Power Batteries and Their Characteristics 
     Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Alkaline Manganese Batteries 
     History of Primary Lithium-Based Batteries and Their Performance Parameters 
     Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Nickel-Cadmium, and Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries 
          Peculiarities in Rechargeable Batteries 
          Design Considerations for Small Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries 
          Frequent Mathematical Expressions Used in the Design of Batteries 
          Contributing Factors to Battery Weight 
     Batteries for Miniaturized Electronic System Applications 
          Brief Description of Rechargeable Batteries Best Suited for Embedded-System Applications 
          Characteristics of an Alkaline Battery for a Simple Embedded-System Application 
          Performance Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Least Complex Embedded-System Application 
          Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Most Complex Embedded-System Application 
     Battery Suitability and Unique Performance Requirements for Aerospace Applications 
          Potential Applications of Lithium, Alkaline, and Zinc-Air Batteries
Batteries for Medical Applications
     Recently Developed Batteries for Specific Medical Applications 
          Performance Characteristics of Li-I2 Batteries 
     Microbattery and Smart Nanobattery Technologies Incorporating Lithium Metal for Medical and Military Applications 
          Smart Lithium-Ion Batteries 
     Low-Power Zinc-Air, Nickel-Metal-Hydride, and Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries 
          Zinc-Air Rechargeable Batteries 
          Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries 
          Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries
Selection Criteria for Primary and Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries for Specific Applications 
     How to Select a Battery for a Particular Application

Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications
Potential Battery Types for Various Military System Applications 
     Aluminum-Air Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications 
          Description of Key Elements of These Batteries 
          Performance Capabilities, Limitations, and Uses of Saline Batteries 
          Performance Capabilities and Uses of Alkaline Batteries 
          Bipolar Silver-Metal-Hydride Batteries for Military Applications 
          Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries for Military Applications
Low-Power Batteries for Various Applications 
     Thin-Film Microbatteries Using MEMS Technology 
     Microbatteries Using Nanotechnology Concepts 
     Critical Design Aspects and Performance Requirements for Thin-Film Microbatteries
High-Power Lithium and Thermal Batteries for Military Applications 
     Materials Requirements for Cathode, Anode, and Electrolyte Best Suited for High-Power Batteries
          Cathode Materials and Their Chemistries 
          Anode Materials and Their Chemistries 
          Electrolytes and Their Chemistries 
     Design Requirements for Thermal Batteries for Specific Applications 
          Design Requirements for TB1 Battery Systems 
          Design Requirements for TB2 Battery Systems 
     Environmental Requirements for Thermal Battery Systems 
     Structural Description of the Batteries and Their Physical Parameters 
     Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained through Laboratory Testing 
     Conclusive Remarks on Th ermal Battery Systems
High-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Underwater Vehicles 
     Performance Capability and Design Aspects of Li-SO2Cl2 Battery Systems 
     Characteristics of Electrolytes Required to Achieve Improvements in Electrochemistry 
     Effects of Thermal Characteristics on the Flowing Electrolyte 
     Output Power Variations as a Function of Discharge Duration in Volta Stack Batteries Using Flowing Electrolytes 
     Impact of Temperature and DOD on the Thermal Conductivity and the Specific Heat of the Electrolytes Used in Thermal Batteries 
     Impact of Discharge Duration on the Battery Power Output 
     Electrolyte Conductivity and Optimization of Electrolyte
High-Power Battery Systems Capable of Providing Electrical Energy in Case of Commercial Power Plant Shutdown over a Long Duration 
     What Is a Vanadium-Based Redox Battery? 
     Potential Applications of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries 
      Structural Details and Operating Principles of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries
Batteries Best Suited for Drones and Unmanned Air Vehicles 
     Battery Power Requirements for Electronic Drones 
     Battery Requirements for UAVs
     Batteries for Countering Improvised Explosive Devices 
          History of Property Damage and Bodily Injury to Soldiers 
          Anti-IED Techniques to Minimize Property Damage and Injury to Soldiers 
          Battery Performance Requirements for Dismounted Anti-IED Systems

Batteries and Fuel Cells for Aerospace and Satellite System Applications Introduction 
     Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications 
          Optimum Charge, Discharge, and Storage Conditions for Lead-Acid Batteries 
          Pros, Cons, and Major Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries 
          Life Cycle of SLABs for Aircraft Applications 
          Effect of Depth of Discharge on Life Cycle of the Lead-Acid Battery
Aluminum-Air Batteries for Aerospace Applications 
     Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Al-Air Batteries 
     Impact of Corrosion on Al-Air Battery Performance as a Function of Anode Current Density 
     Outstanding Characteristics and Potential Applications of Al-Air Rechargeable Battery Systems
Long-Life, Low-Cost, Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries Best Suited for Aerospace and Aircraft Applications 
     Vented Secondary Batteries Best Suited for Aircraft and Aerospace Applications 
     Typical Self-Discharge Characteristics of an Ag-Zn Battery 
     Safety, Reliability, and Disposal Requirements for Ag-Zn Batteries 
     Typical Battery Voltage Level and Cycle Life
SLABs for Commercial and Military Aircraft Applications 
     Performance Aspects of SLABs
          Performance of the EaglePicher Battery Ultralife UB1-2590 
          SLAB from EaglePicher for Commercial Applications 
     Test Procedures and Conditions for SLABs 
     Impact of Charge Rate and Depth of Discharge on the Cycle Life of SLABs 
     Life-Cycle Test Conditions
Thermal Battery for Aircraft Emergency Power and Low-Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft 
     Performance Capabilities of LiAl/FeS2 Thermal Batteries
Rechargeable Batteries for Naval Weapon System Applications 
     Performance Characteristics of Li-SOCL2 Batteries
Thermal Battery Design Confi gurations and Requirements for Launch Vehicle Applications 
     Design Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Advanced Thermal Batteries 
     Unique Performance Capabilities of Thermal Batteries
High-Temperature Lithium Rechargeable Battery Cells 
     Unique Performance Parameters and Design Aspects of Solid Electrolyte Cells
Solid Electrolyte Technology for Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries 
     Critical Role of Solid Electrolytes 
     Improvement in Performance Parameters of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries 
     Impact of Lithium Chloride Oxide Salt Concentration in the Solution of Liquid Plasticizer on Room-Temperature Ionic Conductivity
Rechargeable Batteries for Electronic Drones and Various UAVs 
     Performance Requirements for Batteries Best Suited for Electronic Drone Applications 
     Rechargeable Battery Requirements for UAVs, Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, and MAVs 
     Rechargeable Batteries for Glider Applications
Rechargeable Batteries for Space-Based Military Systems and Satellite Communications 
     Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Military Space-Based Sensors Requiring Moderate Power Levels
High-Power Fuel Cells for Satellites with Specific Missions
     Performance of the MSK Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell for Communications Satellite Applications
Classification of Fuel Cells Based on the Electrolytes 
     Performance Parameters of Fuel Cells Using Various Fuels and Their Typical Applications 
     Comparing Fuel Cell Parameters
Battery Sources for Spacecraft Applications 
     Application of the First Principle Model to Spacecraft Operations for Aging 
     Typical Performance Characteristics of the 40 Ah Sodium-Sulfur Battery Cell

Low-Power Batteries and Their Applications
Performance Capabilities of Lithium-Based Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
     Benefi ts of Solid Electrolytes in Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries 
     Total Conductivity of the Battery Material
Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Devices 
     Impact of Materials and Packaging Technology on Battery Performance 
     Glossary of Terms Used to Specify Battery Performance Parameters 
     Fabrication Aspects of Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Device Applications 
     Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Various Primary and Secondary Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
          Carbon-Zinc Primary Batteries 
          Alkaline-Manganese Batteries
Performance Capabilities of Primary Lithium Batteries 
     Lithium-Iodine Batteries 
     LiMnO2 Battery 
     Lithium-Carbon Fluoride Battery 
     Lithium-Sulfur-Dioxide Battery
     Lithium-Thionyl-Chloride Battery 
     Lithium-Ferrous Sulfide (Li-FeS2) Battery 
     Conclusions on Lithium-Based Batteries
Applications of Small Rechargeable or Secondary Cells
     Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries
     Small Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries 
     S-Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries 
     Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries 
     Lithium-Polymer-Electrolyte Cells
Thin-Film Batteries, Microbatteries, and Nanobatteries 
     Structural Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Thin-Film Batteries 
     Thin-Film Metal-Oxide Electrodes for Lithium-Based Microbatteries 
     Performance Capabilities and Applications of Microbatteries 
     Electrical Performance Parameters of Nanobatteries 
          Applications of Nanomaterials, Carbon-Nanotubes, and Carbon-Nanotube Arrays in Development Batteries
Batteries for Health-Related Applications 
     Battery Requirements for Cardiac Rhythm–Detection Applications 
     Various Batteries Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases 
          Li-Ion Batteries Best Suited Primarily for Medical Devices Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases and to Detect Unknown Ailments
          Li-I2 Batteries for Treating Cardiac Diseases 
          Li-AgVO2 Batteries for Treatment of Cardiac Diseases 
          Batteries for Critical Diagnostic Procedures
Batteries for the Total Artificial Heart 
     Major Benefi ts of Li-Ion Batteries Used for Various Medical Applications 
     Limitations of Li-Ion Batteries 
     Cell-Balancing Requirements for Li-Ion Rechargeable Battery Packs 
     Active-Balancing Technique



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A. R. Jha received his BS in engineering (electrical) from Aligarh Muslim University in 1954, his MS (electrical and mechanical) from Johns Hopkins University, and his PhD from Lehigh University.

Dr. Jha has authored 10 high-technology books and has published more than 75 technical papers. He has worked for companies such as General Electric, Raytheon, and Northrop Grumman and has extensive and comprehensive research, development, and design experience in the fi elds of radars, high-power lasers, electronic warfare systems, microwaves, and MM-wave antennas for various applications, nanotechnology-based sensors and devices, photonic devices, and other electronic components for commercial, military, and space applications. Dr. Jha holds a patent for MM-wave antennas in satellite communications.


I strongly recommend this book to a broad audience, including students, project managers, aerospace engineers, life-science scientists, clinical scientists, and project engineers immersed in the design and development of compact, lightweight batteries best suited for industrial, commercial, military, and space applications.
—Dr. A. K. Sinha, Senior Vice President, Applied Materials, Inc.