Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications

1st Edition

By A.R. Jha

CRC Press

416 pages | 70 B/W Illus.

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Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are the principal performance requirements.

Presenting cutting-edge battery design techniques backed by mathematical expressions and derivations wherever possible, the book supplies an authoritative account of emerging application requirements for small, lightweight, high-reliability rechargeable batteries—particularly for portable and implantable medical devices and diagnostic capsules. It devotes a chapter to fuel cells and describes the three distinct types of practical fuel cells, including those that use aqueous electrolytes, molten electrolytes, and solid electrolytes.

  • Identifies critical performance parameters and limits of rechargeable batteries, including state of charge, depth of discharge, cycle life, discharge rate, and open-circuit voltage
  • Provides a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics
  • Highlights performance capabilities of long-life, low-cost, rechargeable batteries, for particular applications in battlefield systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs )

A.R. Jha, author of 10 books on alternative energy and other topics, outlines rechargeable battery requirements for electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). He identifies the unique materials for electrolytes, cathodes, and anodes that are most cost-effective with significant improvements in weight, size, efficiency, reliability, safety, and longevity. Since electrode kinetics play a key role in the efficient operation of fuel cells, the book also provides you with a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics.


I strongly recommend this book to a broad audience, including students, project managers, aerospace engineers, life-science scientists, clinical scientists, and project engineers immersed in the design and development of compact, lightweight batteries best suited for industrial, commercial, military, and space applications.

—Dr. A. K. Sinha, Senior Vice President, Applied Materials, Inc.

Table of Contents

Current Status of Rechargeable Batteries and Fuel Cells

Rechargeable Batteries

Fundamental Aspects of a Rechargeable Battery

Critical Performance Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

Capabilities of Widely Used Rechargeable Batteries in Commercial Applications

Recycling of Batteries

Toxicity of Materials Used in the Manufacture of Rechargeable Batteries

Safe Toxicity Limits for Workers

Three Main Characteristics of a Rechargeable Battery

Cost-Effective Justification for the Deployment of a Specific Rechargeable Battery for a Specified Application

Techniques to Improve Battery Performance in Terms of Weight and Cost

Why Use Pb-Acid Batteries for Automobiles?

Description of Flow Batteries

Rechargeable Batteries Irrespective of Power Capability

Rechargeable Batteries for Low- and Moderate-Power Applications

Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications

High-Power Batteries for Commercial Applications

Critical Role of Ni-Cd in Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft

Benefits of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft

Impact of Temperature on Discharge Capacity of Ni-MH Batteries

Charging Procedure for a Ni-MH Battery

Degradation Factors in Ni-MH Battery Performance

Thermal Batteries for Aerospace and Defense Applications

Batteries for Space Applications

Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial Applications

Ni-Zn Batteries for Commercial Applications

Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Test Requirements for Rechargeable Batteries Needed for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Predicting the Battery Life of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Performance Capabilities of Batteries Currently Used for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Batteries for Low-Power Applications

Batteries Using Th in-Film and Nanotechnologies

TF Microbatteries

Charge-Discharge Cycles and Charging Time of Low-Power Batteries

Structural Configuration for Low-Power Batteries

Most Popular Materials Used for Low-Power Batteries

Low-Power Standard Cells

Miniature Primary Batteries

Low-Power Batteries Using Nanotechnology

Paper Batteries Using Nanotechnology

Fuel Cells

Description of the Most Popular Fuel Cell Types and Their Configurations

Types of Fuel Cells



Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites


Onboard Electrical Power System

Electrical Power-Bus Design Configuration

Solar-Array Panels

Solar Panel Performance Requirements to Charge the Space-Based Batteries

Battery Power Requirements and Associated Critical Components

Solar-Array Performance Requirements

Electrical Power Requirements from the Solar Arrays during Dark Periods

Solar Panel Orientation Requirements to Achieve Optimum Power from the Sun

Solar-Array Configurations Best Suited for Spacecraft or Communications Satellite

Direct Energy Transfer System

Cost-Effective Design Criterion for Battery-Type Power Systems for Spacecraft

Method of Comparison for Optimum Selection of Power System for a Spacecraft

Step-byStep Approach for Power System Performance

Modeling Requirements to Determine I-V Characteristics

Impact on Battery Electrical Parameters from Onboard Charging and Discharging

Spacecraft Power System Reliability

Failure Rates for Various System Components

Failure Rate Estimation

Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using CC and PWM Regulator Techniques

Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using DET System, CC, and Battery Booster Techniques

Weight and Cost Penalties Associated with Redundant Systems

Total System Weight and Cost as a Function of Mission Length

Reliability Degradation with the Increase in Mission Duration

Increase in Weight and Cost due to Redundant Systems

Ideal Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites

Typical Power Requirements for Space-Based Batteries

Aging Eff ect Critical in Space-Based Batteries

Performance Capabilities and Battery Power Requirements for the Latest Commercial and Military Satellite Systems

Commercial Communication Satellite Systems

Performance Capabilities of the Commercial Communications Satellite Systems

Military Satellites for Communications, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Target Tracking

Military Communications Satellites and Their Capabilities

DSCS-III Communication Satellite System

Power Generation, Conditioning, and Storage Requirements


European Communications Satellite System

Batteries Best Suited to Power Satellite Communications Satellites

Rechargeable Batteries Most Ideal for Communications Satellites

Performance Capabilities of Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries for Space Applications

Performance Parameters of Ni-H2 Batteries

Performance Capabilities of Ag-Zn Batteries

Space Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries



Fuel Cell Technology


Classifications of Fuel Cells

Aqueous Fuel Cell Using Specific Electrolyte

Fuel Cells Using Semisolid Electrolyte

Fuel Cells Using Molten Electrolyte

Classifications of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes

Performance Capabilities of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes

High-Temperature Fuel Cells with Semisolid Molten Electrolyte

Low-Temperature Fuel Cells Using Various Electrolytes

Performance of Low-Temperature and Low-Pressure Fuel Cells Using Aqueous Electrolyte

Output Power Capability of Aqueous Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells Using a Combination of Fuels

Performance of Liquid-Liquid Fuel Cell Design

Fuel Cell Designs for Multiple Applications

Fuel Cells for Electric Storage Battery Applications

DSK-Based Fuel Cells Using Hydrogen-Based DSK Electrodes and Operating under Harsh Conditions

Performance of DSK-Based Fuel Cells with Monolayer DSK Electrodes

Ion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Performance Specifications for IEM Fuel Cells and Batteries for Space Applications

Fuel Cells Using Low-Cost, Porous Silicon Substrate Materials

Hydrogen-Oxygen Power Fuel Cell Using Porous Silicon Structure

Fuel Cell Reactions and Thermodynamic Efficiencies

DMFC Devices Using a PEM Structure

Silicon-Based DMFC Fuel Cells

Potential Applications of Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells for Military and Space Applications

Fuel Cells for Battlefi eld Applications

Deployment of Fuel Cells in UAVs Acting as Electronic Drones Capable of Providing Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Intelligence Gathering, and Missile Attack Capabilities

Why Fuel Cells for Counterinsurgency Applications?

Fuel Cells for Aircraft Applications

Performance Capabilities and Limitations of All-Electric Aircraft or Vehicles

Fuel Cells for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications

Fuel Cells for Automobiles, Buses, and Scooters

Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature H2-O2 Fuel Cells

Design Aspects and Performance Parameters of a Low-Cost, Moderate-Temperature Fuel Cell

Design Requirements for Cost-Effective Fuel Cells

Ideal Fuel Cells for the Average Homeowner

Design Requirements for Fuel Cells for Homeowners

Compact Fuel Cells for Cars, Scooters, and Motor Bikes

Fuel Cells for Portable Electric Power Systems

Fuel Cells Capable of Operating in Ultra-High-Temperature Environments

Types of Materials Used in Ultra-High-Temperature Fuel Cells

Solid Electrolyte Most Ideal for Fuel Cells Operating at Higher Temperatures (600–1,000°C)

Molten Electrolytes Offer Improved Efficiencies in High-Temperature Operations

Performance Capability of Porous Electrodes

Electrode Kinetics and Their Impact on High-Power Fuel Cell Performance

Polarization for Chemisorption-Desorption Rates

Fuel Cell Requirements for Electric Power Plant Applications

Performance Requirements of Fuel Cells for Power Plants



Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles


Chronological Development History of Early Electric Vehicles and Their Performance Parameters

Electric-Based Transportation Means

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Developed Earlier by Various Companies and Their Performance Specifications



Aptera Motors

Tesla Motors

Baker Motors

Development History of the Latest Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Types and Their Performance Capabilities and Limitations

GM Chevy Volt


Ford Focus

Ford Escape

Ford C-Max and Ford C-Max Energi


Performance Requirements of Various Rechargeable Batteries

Battery Pack Energy Requirements

Battery Materials and Associated Costs

Materials for Rechargeable Batteries Deployed in EVs and EHVs

Impact of Road and Driving Conditions on Battery Charging Times and Costs

Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

Materials Requirements for Three Functional Components of the Li-Ion Battery




Major Performance Characteristic of Li-Ion Batteries

Characteristic of Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries

Zinc-Air Rechargeable Fuel Cells for EVs and HEVs

Energy Density Levels for Various Rechargeable Batteries

Li-Ion Battery Pack Configuration

Some Unique Problems Associated with Li-Ion Battery Packs

Design Concept Incorporating the Smart Grid Technology

Charging-Load Impact on the Utility Gridlines

Typical Charging Rates for Rechargeable Battery Packs and Electrical Load

Materials and Their Properties Best Suited for Rechargeable Batteries

Major Material Costs for a 100 Ah High-Energy Rechargeable Battery Pack

Estimated Costs for Battery Packs Widely Used in All-Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Impact of Component Costs on the Procurement Cost of Battery Packs

Estimated Current and Future Component Costs

Material Cost Estimates

Critical Role of Rare Earth Materials in the Development of EVs and HEVs

Identification of Various Rare Earth Materials Used in EVs and HEVs

Impact of Future Rare Earth Materials on the Performance of EVs and HEVs

Costs Associated with Refining, Processing, and Quality Control Inspection of Rare Earth Materials



Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial, Space, and Medical Applications


Low-Power Battery Configurations

Low-Power Batteries Using Cylindrical Configuration

Carbon-Zinc Primary Low-Power Batteries and Their Characteristics

Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Alkaline Manganese Batteries

History of Primary Lithium-Based Batteries and Their Performance Parameters

Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Nickel-Cadmium, and Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

Peculiarities in Rechargeable Batteries

Design Considerations for Small Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries

Frequent Mathematical Expressions Used in the Design of Batteries

Contributing Factors to Battery Weight

Batteries for Miniaturized Electronic System Applications

Brief Description of Rechargeable Batteries Best Suited for Embedded-System Applications

Characteristics of an Alkaline Battery for a Simple Embedded-System Application

Performance Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Least Complex Embedded-System Application

Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Most Complex Embedded-System Application

Battery Suitability and Unique Performance Requirements for Aerospace Applications

Potential Applications of Lithium, Alkaline, and Zinc-Air Batteries

Batteries for Medical Applications

Recently Developed Batteries for Specific Medical Applications

Performance Characteristics of Li-I2 Batteries

Microbattery and Smart Nanobattery Technologies Incorporating Lithium Metal for Medical and Military Applications

Smart Lithium-Ion Batteries

Low-Power Zinc-Air, Nickel-Metal-Hydride, and Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries

Zinc-Air Rechargeable Batteries

Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries

Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries

Selection Criteria for Primary and Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries for Specific Applications

How to Select a Battery for a Particular Application



Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications


Potential Battery Types for Various Military System Applications

Aluminum-Air Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications

Description of Key Elements of These Batteries

Performance Capabilities, Limitations, and Uses of Saline Batteries

Performance Capabilities and Uses of Alkaline Batteries

Bipolar Silver-Metal-Hydride Batteries for Military Applications

Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries for Military Applications

Low-Power Batteries for Various Applications

Thin-Film Microbatteries Using MEMS Technology

Microbatteries Using Nanotechnology Concepts

Critical Design Aspects and Performance Requirements for Thin-Film Microbatteries

High-Power Lithium and Thermal Batteries for Military Applications

Materials Requirements for Cathode, Anode, and Electrolyte Best Suited for High-Power Batteries

Cathode Materials and Their Chemistries

Anode Materials and Their Chemistries

Electrolytes and Their Chemistries

Design Requirements for Thermal Batteries for Specific Applications

Design Requirements for TB1 Battery Systems

Design Requirements for TB2 Battery Systems

Environmental Requirements for Thermal Battery Systems

Structural Description of the Batteries and Their Physical Parameters

Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained through Laboratory Testing

Conclusive Remarks on Th ermal Battery Systems

High-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Underwater Vehicles

Performance Capability and Design Aspects of Li-SO2Cl2 Battery Systems

Characteristics of Electrolytes Required to Achieve Improvements in Electrochemistry

Effects of Thermal Characteristics on the Flowing Electrolyte

Output Power Variations as a Function of Discharge Duration in Volta Stack Batteries Using Flowing Electrolytes

Impact of Temperature and DOD on the Thermal Conductivity and the Specific Heat of the Electrolytes Used in Thermal Batteries

Impact of Discharge Duration on the Battery Power Output

Electrolyte Conductivity and Optimization of Electrolyte

High-Power Battery Systems Capable of Providing Electrical Energy in Case of Commercial Power Plant Shutdown over a Long Duration

What Is a Vanadium-Based Redox Battery?

Potential Applications of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries

Structural Details and Operating Principles of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries

Batteries Best Suited for Drones and Unmanned Air Vehicles

Battery Power Requirements for Electronic Drones

Battery Requirements for UAVs

Batteries for Countering Improvised Explosive Devices

History of Property Damage and Bodily Injury to Soldiers

Anti-IED Techniques to Minimize Property Damage and Injury to Soldiers

Battery Performance Requirements for Dismounted Anti-IED Systems



Batteries and Fuel Cells for Aerospace and Satellite System Applications Introduction

Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications

Optimum Charge, Discharge, and Storage Conditions for Lead-Acid Batteries

Pros, Cons, and Major Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries

Life Cycle of SLABs for Aircraft Applications

Effect of Depth of Discharge on Life Cycle of the Lead-Acid Battery

Aluminum-Air Batteries for Aerospace Applications

Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Al-Air Batteries

Impact of Corrosion on Al-Air Battery Performance as a Function of Anode Current Density

Outstanding Characteristics and Potential Applications of Al-Air Rechargeable Battery Systems

Long-Life, Low-Cost, Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries Best Suited for Aerospace and Aircraft Applications

Vented Secondary Batteries Best Suited for Aircraft and Aerospace Applications

Typical Self-Discharge Characteristics of an Ag-Zn Battery

Safety, Reliability, and Disposal Requirements for Ag-Zn Batteries

Typical Battery Voltage Level and Cycle Life

SLABs for Commercial and Military Aircraft Applications

Performance Aspects of SLABs

Performance of the EaglePicher Battery Ultralife UB1-2590

SLAB from EaglePicher for Commercial Applications

Test Procedures and Conditions for SLABs

Impact of Charge Rate and Depth of Discharge on the Cycle Life of SLABs

Life-Cycle Test Conditions

Thermal Battery for Aircraft Emergency Power and Low-Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft

Performance Capabilities of LiAl/FeS2 Thermal Batteries

Rechargeable Batteries for Naval Weapon System Applications

Performance Characteristics of Li-SOCL2 Batteries

Thermal Battery Design Confi gurations and Requirements for Launch Vehicle Applications

Design Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Advanced Thermal Batteries

Unique Performance Capabilities of Thermal Batteries

High-Temperature Lithium Rechargeable Battery Cells

Unique Performance Parameters and Design Aspects of Solid Electrolyte Cells

Solid Electrolyte Technology for Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries

Critical Role of Solid Electrolytes

Improvement in Performance Parameters of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

Impact of Lithium Chloride Oxide Salt Concentration in the Solution of Liquid Plasticizer on Room-Temperature Ionic Conductivity

Rechargeable Batteries for Electronic Drones and Various UAVs

Performance Requirements for Batteries Best Suited for Electronic Drone Applications

Rechargeable Battery Requirements for UAVs, Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, and MAVs

Rechargeable Batteries for Glider Applications

Rechargeable Batteries for Space-Based Military Systems and Satellite Communications

Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Military Space-Based Sensors Requiring Moderate Power Levels

High-Power Fuel Cells for Satellites with Specific Missions

Performance of the MSK Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell for Communications Satellite Applications

Classification of Fuel Cells Based on the Electrolytes

Performance Parameters of Fuel Cells Using Various Fuels and Their Typical Applications

Comparing Fuel Cell Parameters

Battery Sources for Spacecraft Applications

Application of the First Principle Model to Spacecraft Operations for Aging

Typical Performance Characteristics of the 40 Ah Sodium-Sulfur Battery Cell



Low-Power Batteries and Their Applications


Performance Capabilities of Lithium-Based Batteries for Low-Power Applications

Benefi ts of Solid Electrolytes in Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries

Total Conductivity of the Battery Material

Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Devices

Impact of Materials and Packaging Technology on Battery Performance

Glossary of Terms Used to Specify Battery Performance Parameters

Fabrication Aspects of Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Device Applications

Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Various Primary and Secondary Batteries for Low-Power Applications

Carbon-Zinc Primary Batteries

Alkaline-Manganese Batteries

Performance Capabilities of Primary Lithium Batteries

Lithium-Iodine Batteries

LiMnO2 Battery

Lithium-Carbon Fluoride Battery

Lithium-Sulfur-Dioxide Battery

Lithium-Thionyl-Chloride Battery

Lithium-Ferrous Sulfide (Li-FeS2) Battery

Conclusions on Lithium-Based Batteries

Applications of Small Rechargeable or Secondary Cells

Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries

Small Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

S-Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries

Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries

Lithium-Polymer-Electrolyte Cells

Thin-Film Batteries, Microbatteries, and Nanobatteries

Structural Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Thin-Film Batteries

Thin-Film Metal-Oxide Electrodes for Lithium-Based Microbatteries

Performance Capabilities and Applications of Microbatteries

Electrical Performance Parameters of Nanobatteries

Applications of Nanomaterials, Carbon-Nanotubes, and Carbon-Nanotube Arrays in Development Batteries

Batteries for Health-Related Applications

Battery Requirements for Cardiac Rhythm–Detection Applications

Various Batteries Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases

Li-Ion Batteries Best Suited Primarily for Medical Devices Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases and to Detect Unknown Ailments

Li-I2 Batteries for Treating Cardiac Diseases

Li-AgVO2 Batteries for Treatment of Cardiac Diseases

Batteries for Critical Diagnostic Procedures

Batteries for the Total Artificial Heart

Major Benefi ts of Li-Ion Batteries Used for Various Medical Applications

Limitations of Li-Ion Batteries

Cell-Balancing Requirements for Li-Ion Rechargeable Battery Packs

Active-Balancing Technique




About the Author

A. R. Jha received his BS in engineering (electrical) from Aligarh Muslim University in 1954, his MS (electrical and mechanical) from Johns Hopkins University, and his PhD from Lehigh University.

Dr. Jha has authored 10 high-technology books and has published more than 75 technical papers. He has worked for companies such as General Electric, Raytheon, and Northrop Grumman and has extensive and comprehensive research, development, and design experience in the fi elds of radars, high-power lasers, electronic warfare systems, microwaves, and MM-wave antennas for various applications, nanotechnology-based sensors and devices, photonic devices, and other electronic components for commercial, military, and space applications. Dr. Jha holds a patent for MM-wave antennas in satellite communications.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Microelectronics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications