Ninety Years of Housing, 1921–2011
Trends Relating to Living Standards, Energy Use and Carbon Emissions (FB 46)
The housing stock in the UK has changed significantly since 1921. Many homes have been constructed since then, leading to the very wide diversity that we see today. This report looks back over the past 90 years, presenting statistics that illustrate key changes and the progress that has been made in improving the nation’s homes. The focus is on changes to the housing stock that have had an effect on standards of living, energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Impacts on health are also discussed. The report closes by considering what the housing stock will need to look like in 2050 in order to meet the UK government’s target to cut CO2 emissions by 80% on 1990 levels, and the scale of the challenge that this presents. What has been achieved in the past is very substantial, but also provides an important reality check on the feasibility of achieving such large-scale changes over the next 40 years.
Table of Contents
Preface. 1 Executive Summary. 2 Introduction. 3 The Current Housing Stock. 4 Number of Households and Mean Household Size. 5 Tenure Distribution and House Prices. 6 Presence of Basic Amenities. 7 Households with Gas and Electricity Supplies and the Uptake of Household Appliances. 8 Central Heating and Energy Efficiency Measures. 9 Total Energy Use, Proportions of Each Fuel Type and Energy Use Per Household. 10 Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the Stock and Per Household. 11 Renewable Energy. 12 Carbon Dioxide Emission Targets for 2050 and Their Implications for Housing. 13 Conclusions. 14 References. Appendices: Underlying data; Adopting energy efficiency measures throughout the housing stock; Meeting the 2050 target: the scale of the challenge; Housing and health
Senior Consultant and Principal Consultant, BRE, UK