1st Edition

Nitroxide Spin Labels
Reactions in Biology and Chemistry



ISBN 9780849342042
Published May 11, 1995 by CRC Press
288 Pages

USD $450.00

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Book Description

Extending the use of nitroxides as probes into more complex systems such as viable cells and whole animals requires greater knowledge of their interactions in functioning biological systems and appropriate model systems. Nitroxide Spin Labels: Reactions in Biology and Chemistry presents information essential for research in this area. Nitroxide research offers the promise of important new ways of measuring metabolism and will be useful in the diagnosis of important disease categories such as cancer, inflammation, and ischemia.

Table of Contents

Introduction
General Considerations
Use of Nitroxides as Contrast Agents for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
EPR Imaging and In Vivo EPR Techniques
Measurements of the Concentration of Oxygen
Measurement of Diffusion
Measurement of Viability
Measurement of Temperature
Summary and Plan of the Book
Terminology, Classification, and Distribution of the Nitroxides in Cells
General Analysis and Terminology
Classification
Distribution of Nitroxides in Cells
General Considerations
Distributions of Neutral Nitroxides
Location of Charged Nitroxides in Cells
Location of Doxyl Strearates and Related Lipophilic Nitroxides
Location of Phospholipids Labeled with Nitroxides
Chemical Reactivity of Nitroxides
General Aspects
Stability of Pure Solutions
Electrochemical Reactions
Reduction
Mechanisms of Chemical Reduction
Reduction of f-Phenylenediamine
Reduction by Metal Ions
Reduction of Nitroxides by Ascorbic Acid and Flavins
Reoxidation of Hydroxylamines and Amines to Nitroxides
Interconversion of Hydroxylamines and Nitroxides
Reduction of Nitroxides by SH-Containing Substances
Reactions of Free Radicals with Nitroxides
Photochemical Reactions
Nitroxides as Redox Probes of Melanin
Interactions with Singlet Oxygen
Radiation-Induced Reactions
Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Reactions
Radiosensitization by Nitroxides
Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation
Reactions of Superoxide with Nitroxides
Nitroxides as Catalysts of Radical Reactions
Spin Trapping
Challenges for Chemists and Biochemists
Applications of Reactions of Nitroxides in Biophysics
General Considerations
The Kinetics and Mechanism of Reduction of Nitroxides by Ascorbic Acid
Investigations of Model and Biological Membranes
Transport of Ascorbate
The Kinetics of Reductions in Membranes
Reduction of Spin-Labeled Lipids
Dynamics of Lipids
Membrane Permeability and Transport of Nitroxides
Protein Mobility
Nitroxide Reduction with para-Phenylenediamine in Suspensions of Membranes
The Use of the Kinetics of Reduction to Study Disease
Oximetry with Nitroxides
Biochemical Basis of Reduction of Nitroxides in Membranes
General Aspects of Reactions of Nitroxides in Membranes
Reduction of Nitroxides with Components of Biological Membranes
Reactions with Sulfhydryl Groups
Reactions with Mitochondrial or Other Membranes Having Respiratory Chains
Kinetics of the Reduction of Nitroxides by the Electron Transport Chain
Microsomal Membranes
Nitroxide Binding to Cytochrome P-450
Reoxidation with the Respiratory Chain and Superoxide
Hydrophobicity and Biological Activity of Membrane-Active Substances
Conclusions
Metabolism of Nitroxides and Their Products in Cells
Scheme of Chapter and General Overview of Metabolism of Nitroxides and Hydroxylamines
Detailed Considerations of Reduction of Nitroxides in Mammalian Cells
Factors that Affect the Rate of Reduction of Nitroxides
Mechanisms of Reduction of Nitroxides in Cells
Location of Reduction of Nitroxides
Cellular Oxidation of Hydroxylamines
Metabolism and Distribution of Nitroxides in Specific Types of Cells
Use of Rates of Reduction of Nitroxides to Detect Differences in Cells, Including Malignant Changes
Erythrocytes, Plasma, and Whole Blood
Macrophages
Other Cellular Systems
Metabolism and Distribution of Nitroxides in Tissues and Organs
Homogenized Tissues
Isolated and/or Perfused Tissues
Nerves
Other Specialized Tissues
Metabolism and Distribution of Nitroxides In Vivo
General Considerations on Distribution and Metabolism of Nitroxides In Vivo
Principles of Metabolism and Distribution of Nitroxides In Vivo
Assay Methods Used to Measure Levels of Nitroxides in Blood and Tissues
Blood and Tissue Levels of Nitroxides and Hydroxylamines
Single Administration
Repeated Administration
Metabolism In Vivo
Types of Reactions
Influence of Oxygen on the Reactions In Vivo
Roles of Intracellular and Extracellular Reduction
Metabolism in Organ Systems
Physical Elimination of Nitroxides and Hydroxylamines
Distribution In Vivo
Conversions to Other Derivatives In Vivo
Toxicity and the Use of Nitroxides as Bioactive Drugs
General Aspects of Toxicity of Nitroxides
Data on Toxicity from In Vitro Systems
Data from Model Systems
Data from Subcellular and Cellular Systems
Toxicity in In Vivo Systems
General Considerations
LD50 and Other Measures of Lethal Effects of Nitroxides
Nonlethal Acute Effects
Chronic Effects
Toxic Effects Involving the Non-Nitroxide Parts of the Spin Labels
Effects due to Physical Interactions and/or Localization on the basis of Physical-Chemical Properties of the Nitroxides
Effects Due to Chemical Reactions of the Non-Nitroxide Portion of the Molecule
Summary on Toxicity
Metabolism, Toxicity, and Distribution of Spin Traps
Introduction
Stability of Spin Traps in Cells and Tissues
General Principles and Information on Stability of Adducts of Spin Traps
DMPO
PBN and Related Spin Traps
Other Spin Traps
Spin Traps and Erythrocytes
Conclusions on Stability of Spin Traps and Spin Adducts in Functional Biological Systems
Stability In Vivo
Toxicity of Spin Traps
Summary and Conclusions
Introduction
Principles of Metabolism of Nitroxides
Potential Limitations of the Use of Nitroxides in Viable Biological Systems and Approaches to Overcome Them
Bioreduction
Toxicity
Sensitivity
Applications of Nitroxides in Viable Biological Systems which are Likely to be Affected by the Biological and Chemical Interactions of Nitroxides
Assessment of the Future for Nitroxides
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Kocherginsky\, Nickolai; Swartz\, Harold M.