Node List Tolerance Analysis: Enhancing SPICE Capabilities with Mathcad, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Node List Tolerance Analysis

Enhancing SPICE Capabilities with Mathcad, 1st Edition

By Robert R. Boyd

CRC Press

352 pages | 251 B/W Illus.

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Developed at UC Berkeley more than two decades ago, SPICE software is the tool of choice for performing nominal analysis for electronic circuits. However, attempts to use SPICE for worst-case analysis (WCA) reveal several shortcomings, including: a 400-sample limit for Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA); lack of Rot-Sum-Square (RSS) analysis, asymmetric component tolerances, Fast MCA, or AC sensitivity capability; no single-run method of tolerancing inputs; and no predefined beta (skewed) or bimodal (gapped) distributions for MCA. While several commercial versions of SPICE may have corrected some of these limitations, they still remain rather expensive.

Based on extensive experience in WCA, Node List Tolerance Analysis: Enhancing SPICE Capabilities with Mathcad presents software methods that overcome the many limitations of SPICE WCA using less expensive tools. The author demonstrates correct and incorrect methods of extreme value analysis, demonstrates the necessity of tolerancing multiple inputs, and provides output histograms for unusual inputs. He also shows how to detect non-monotonic components, which cause severe errors in all WCA methods except MCA. The book also includes demonstrations of tolerance analysis of three-phase AC circuits.

Node List Tolerance Analysis: Enhancing SPICE Capabilities with Mathcad requires no circuit analysis mathematics, supplying original methods of nominal circuit analysis using node lists. It is ideal for performing effective analyses while adhering to a budget.

Table of Contents



Nominal Analysis

Introduction to Node List Circuit Analysis

Passive Circuits

Introduction to Node List Circuit Analysis

All-Capacitive Circuit

All-Inductive Circuit

Twin-T RC Network

Broadband Pulse Transformer Model

All-Capacitive Loops (ACL)

All-Inductive Cutsets (ICS)

All-Capacitive Loop Example

Controlled Sources

Controlled (Dependent) Sources

Floating VCVS

Circuits with M > 1

First-Order MOSFET Model

VCVS and CCCS Example

Two Inputs, Three Outputs

Third-Order Opamp Model

A Subcircuit Scheme

Subcircuit Opamp Model

Fifth-Order Active Filter

State Variable Filter

Seventh-Order Elliptical Low-Pass Filter

Square Root of Frequency (+10dB/decade) Circuit

HV (200V) Shunt MOSFET Regulator

LTC 1562 Band-Pass Filter IC in a Quad IC

LTC 1562 Quad Band-Pass Filter IC

BJT Constant Current Source-A Simple Linear Model Using the NDS Method

uA733 Video Amplifier

Leverrier's Algorithm

Numerical Transfer Function [1]

Transfer Function Using Leverrier's Algorithm for Twin-T RC Network

Stability Analysis

Unity Gain Differential Amplifiers

Stability of LM158 Opamp Model

High-Voltage Shunt Regulator-Stability Analysis

Transient Analysis


Switched Transient Analysis

N = 2 Switched Circuit Transient Response

Comparator 100-Hz Oscillator

Transient Analysis of Pulse Transformer

Passive RCL Circuit Transient Analysis

Mathcad's Differential Equation Solvers

A Mathematical Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)

Switching Power Supply Output Stage-Buck Regulator

State Space Averaging

Simple Triangular Waveform Generator

Quadrature Oscillator

Wein Bridge Oscillator

DC Circuit Analysis

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Circuit

An Undergraduate EE Textbook Problem

DC Test Circuit

Stacking VCVS's and Paralleling VCCS's

DC Voltage Sweep (RTD Circuit)

RTD Circuit-Step Resistor Value

Floating 5-V Input Source

Three-Phase Circuits

Convert ? Floating Voltage Inputs to Single-Ended Y Inputs

Three-Phase NDS Solution

Three-Phase Y-Unbalanced Load

Three-Phase Y-Connected Unbalanced Load-Floating Delta Input

Balanced Y-Load

Appendix I

Background Theory of NDS Method

Theory of NDS Method




Some Facts about Tolerance Analysis

DC Circuits

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Circuit

A Note on Asymmetric Tolerances

Centered Difference Approximation-Sensitivities

RTD Circuit Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA)

RTD MCA with R4 Tolerance = 10%

RTD Circuit Fast Monte Carlo Analysis (FMCA)

A Case of FMCA Greater than EVA

Tolerancing Inputs

Beta Distributions

RTD MCA-Beta (Skewed) Distribution

MCA of RTD Circuit using Bimodal (Gapped) Distribution Inputs

AC Circuits

Circuit Output vs. Component Value

Exact Values of C1 Sensitivity

Multiple-Output EVA

Butterworth Low-Pass Filter Circuit

Butterworth Low-Pass Filter MCA

Butterworth Low-Pass Filter EVA

Butterworth Low-Pass Filter FMCA

Multiple-Feedback Band-Pass Filter (BPF) Circuit

Multiple-Feedback BPF MCA

Multiple-Feedback BPF EVA

Multiple-Feedback BPF FMCA

Switching Power Supply Compensation Circuit

Switching Power Supply Compensation MCA

Switching Power Supply Compensation EVA

Switching Power Supply Compensation FMCA

Sallen and Key Band-Pass Filter (BPF) Circuit

Sallen and Key BPF MCA

Sallen and Key BPF EVA

Sallen and Key BPF FMCA

State Variable Filter Circuit

State Variable Filter MCA

State Variable Filter EVA

State Variable Filter FMCA and MCA Combined

High-Q Hum Notch Filter Circuit

High-Q Hum Notch Filter MCA

High-Q Hum Notch Filter EVA

High-Q Hum Notch Filter FMCA

LTC 1562 MCA

LTC 1562 EVA

Transient Tolerance Analysis

Transient MCA-Twin-T RC Network

Transient MCA-Multiple Feedback BPF

AC and Transient MCA-Bessel HPF

Transient MCA-State Variable Filter

Three-Phase Circuits

Three-Phase Y-Connected Unbalanced Load MCA

Three-Phase Y-Connected Unbalanced Load EVA

Three-Phase Y-Connected Unbalanced Load FMCA

Miscellaneous Topics

Components Nominally Zero

Tolerance Analysis of Opamp Offsets

Best-Fit Resistor Ratios

Truncated Gaussian Distribution

LTC1060 Switched Capacitor Filter

Appendix II

Summary of Tolerance Analysis Methods

Table of Subprograms

In Case of Difficulty



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General