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2nd Edition

Nuclear Forensic Analysis




ISBN 9781439880616
Published December 10, 2014 by CRC Press
524 Pages - 111 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Now in its second edition, Nuclear Forensic Analysis provides a multidisciplinary reference for forensic scientists, analytical and nuclear chemists, and nuclear physicists in one convenient source. The authors focus particularly on the chemical, physical, and nuclear aspects associated with the production or interrogation of a radioactive sample. They consolidate fundamental principles of nuclear forensic analysis, all pertinent protocols and procedures, computer modeling development, interpretational insights, and attribution considerations. The principles and techniques detailed are then demonstrated and discussed in their applications to real-world investigations and casework conducted over the past several years.

Highlights of the Second Edition include:

  • A new section on sample analysis considerations and interpretation following a post-detonation nuclear forensic collection
  • New case studies, including the most wide-ranging and multidisciplinary nuclear forensic investigation conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to date
  • Expanded treatments of radiologic dispersal devices (RDDs) and statistical analysis methodologies

The material is presented with minimal mathematical formality, using consistent terminology with limited jargon, making it a reliable, accessible reference. The broad-based coverage provides important insight into the multifaceted changes facing this recently developed science.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Nuclear Materials
Nuclear Power and Pu Production
Nuclear Weapons and the Cold War
Nuclear Treaties and Nonproliferation Programs
SNM Disposition
Nuclear Proliferation and Terrorism
Nuclear Smuggling
Forensic Goals

Physical Basis of Nuclear Forensic Science
Background
Types of Radioactive Decay
Rate Laws in Radioactive Decay
Atoms, Binding Energy, and Chart of the Nuclides
Nuclear Structure, Isomerism, and Selection Rules
Nuclear Reactions
Natural Radioactivity
Fission, Barrier Penetration, and Energy Production

Engineering Issues
Natural versus Synthetic Materials
Recovery of Actinides from the Earth
Separation and Enrichment of U Isotopes
Electromagnetic Isotope Separation
Gaseous Diffusion
Thermal Diffusion
Gas Centrifugation
Aerodynamic Enrichment
Laser Isotope Separation
Isotope Enrichment Through Chemical Exchange
Nuclear Reactors, Power, and the Production of Pu and 233U
Recovery and Purification of Heavy Elements from Reactor Products
Heavy-Element Metals and Alloys

Chemistry and Nuclear Forensic Science
Tracers in Inorganic Analysis
Relevant Chemical Properties

Principles of Nuclear Explosive Devices
One-Stage Fission Explosive (Atomic Bomb)
Boosting
Two-Stage Nuclear Explosive (Hydrogen Bomb)
Forensic Analysis of Nuclear-Explosive Debris


Chronometry
Heavy Elements and Fission-Product Chronometers
Granddaughters and Spoof Detection
Detection of Incomplete Fuel Reprocessing

Techniques for Small Signatures
Chemical Separations and Reduction of Background
Radiochemical Milking
Mass Spectrometry and Microanalysis
Radiation Detection
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Decay Characteristics
Gas-Phase Detectors
Solid-State Detectors
Scintillation Detectors
Empirical Application and Spectra

Collateral Forensic Indicators
Stable Isotopes
Lead
Oxygen
Inorganic Elements
Organic Analyses
High Explosives
Hairs and Fibers
Inks and Papers
Fingerprints
Other

Sample Matrices and Collection
Soil/Sediment Matrices
Vegetation Matrices
Water Matrix
Fauna Matrices
Other Matrices
Collection Tactics

Radiochemical Procedures
Dissolution
Redox
Separations
MS Analysis and Reagent Purity

Inorganic/Isotopic Sample Preparation
Alpha Counting
Beta Counting
Gamma Counting
Inorganic Techniques

Organic Sample Preparation
Extraction
Solid-Phase Microextraction
Derivatization

Extraordinary Sample Issues

Field Collection Kits

NDA Field Radioactivity Detection

Laboratory Analyses
Radiation Counting Systems
Counting Lab
Counter Shielding and Systems
Particle Detection
Chemistry Lab Application
Tritium Analysis
Imaging and Microscopy
Optical Microscopy
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Electron Microprobe Analysis
X-Ray Microanalysis
Infrared Spectroscopy
Isotope MS
Isotope-Ratio MS
Element MS
MS and Microanalysis
Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Capillary Electrophoresis

Inferred Production Estimates
Uranium
Plutonium
SNM Stocks
Analysis

Materials Fingerprinting
Criminalistics Comparisons
Material Compositions
Calculations

Source and Route Attribution
Introduction
Source Attribution Questions
Route Attribution Questions
Forensic Analysis of Interdicted Nuclear Materials
Laboratory Characterization of Nuclear Materials for Source Data
Laboratory Characterization of Nuclear Materials for Route Data
Prioritization of Forensic Tools for Route Attribution
Analytic Techniques for Nuclear Forensic Interrogation
Isotopes
Elemental Composition/Major and Trace Elements
Organic Species
DNA
Physical and Structural Characteristics
Geolocation and Route Attribution: Real-World Examples
Pb-Isotope Fingerprinting
O-Isotope Fingerprinting
Other Isotopic Ratios
Reference Data for Enhanced Interpretation

Forensic Investigation of a Highly Enriched Uranium Sample Interdicted In Bulgaria
Analyses of Uranium Oxide
Analyses of Collateral Evidence
Lead Container
Yellow Wax
Paper Liner and Label
Glass Ampoule
Attribution

Counterforensic Investigation of US Enrichment Plants
Background
Sampling
Radiochemistry
Results
Interpretation
Summary

Nuclear Smuggling Hoax — D-38 Counterweight
Background and Analyses
Results and Discussion

Nuclear Smuggling Hoax — Sc Metal
Background and Analyses
Results and Discussion

Fatal "Cold Fusion" Explosion
Background and Analyses
Results and Discussion
Commentary

Questioned Sample from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency
Background and Nondestructive Analysis
Radiochemistry and Results
Discussion
Summary

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Kenton J. Moody is with the Nuclear Chemistry Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where he is a technical leader for the application of nuclear and radiochemical techniques to problems in national security and the U.S. nuclear stockpile. He also performs basic research on the heaviest elements. In addition to numerous classified reports detailing the performance of nuclear explosive devices, he has coauthored more than 100 refereed journal publications in the subject areas of the decay properties of the heaviest elements, nuclear reaction mechanisms, fission, and nuclear structure. He has co-discovered six chemical elements and more than four dozen heavy-element isotopes.

Patrick M. Grant has been a staff member at Livermore National Laboratory since 1983, serving as the deputy director and special operations and samples manager of the Forensic Science Center. In addition to numerous classified and law enforcement reports, he has authored or coauthored more than 120 refereed publications in the open literature in diverse subject areas. He has been a fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences since 1999 and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Forensic Sciences since 2003. One of his unclassified investigations, a scientific explanation for the Riverside Hospital Emergency Room "Mystery Fumes" incident, was extensively highlighted in the popular media and is now appearing in fundamental forensic science textbooks.

Ian D. Hutcheon is the deputy director of the Glenn Seaborg Institute, the Chemical and Isotopic Signatures group leader in the Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, and a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has authored over 180 publications in peer-reviewed journals in the areas of secondary-ion mass spectrometry, the early history of the solar system, and nuclear forensic analysis. He also serves on the review panels of the NASA Cosmochemistry Program and the Sample Return Laboratory Instruments and Data Analysis Program. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and a fellow of the Meteoritical Society.

Reviews

Praise for the First Edition

"This book by three of the leading authorities in the field outlines a critically important area of forensic science in the modern world. … should be in the library of every forensic laboratory."
—Chemistry Professor W.F. Kinard, College of Charleston, in The Journal of Forensic Sciences