Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Nuclear Systems Volume I

Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Neil E. Todreas, Mujid S Kazimi

CRC Press

1,034 pages | 343 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2011-09-21
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Description

Nuclear power is in the midst of a generational change—with new reactor designs, plant subsystems, fuel concepts, and other information that must be explained and explored—and after the 2011 Japan disaster, nuclear reactor technologies are, of course, front and center in the public eye.

Written by leading experts from MIT, Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition provides an in-depth introduction to nuclear power, with a focus on thermal hydraulic design and analysis of the nuclear core. A close examination of new developments in nuclear systems, this book will help readers—particularly students—to develop the knowledge and design skills required to improve the next generation of nuclear reactors.

Tables for Computation available for download at www.crcpress.com/product/ISBN/9781439808870

Intended for experts and senior undergraduate/early-stage graduate students, the material addresses:

  • Different types of reactors
  • Core and plant performance measures
  • Fission energy generation and deposition
  • Conservation equations
  • Thermodynamics
  • Fluid flow
  • Heat transfer

Imparting a wealth of knowledge, including their longtime experience with the safety aspects of nuclear installations, authors Todreas and Kazimi stress the integration of fluid flow and heat transfer, various reactor types, and energy source distribution. They cover recent nuclear reactor concepts and systems, including Generation III+ and IV reactors, as well as new power cycles. The book features new chapter problems and examples using concept parameters, and a solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.

Table of Contents

Principal Characteristics of Power Reactors

Introduction

Power Cycles

Primary Coolant Systems

Reactor Cores

Fuel Assemblies

Advanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)

Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)

References

Problems

Thermal Design Principles and Application

Introduction

Overall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic Considerations

Energy Production and Transfer Parameters

Thermal Design Limits

Thermal Design Margin

Figures of Merit for Core Thermal Performance

The Inverted Fuel Array

The Equivalent Annulus Approximation

References

Problems

Reactor Energy Distribution

Introduction

Energy Generation and Deposition

Fission Power and Calorimetric (Core Thermal) Power

Power Profiles in Reactor Cores

Energy Generation Rate within a Fuel Pin

Energy Deposition Rate within The Moderator

Shutdown Energy Generation Rate

Stored Energy Sources

References

Problems

Transport Equations for Single-Phase Flow

Introduction

Mathematical Relations

Lumped Parameter Integral Approach

Distributed Parameter Integral Approach

Differential Conservation Equations

Turbulent Flow

References

Problems

Transport Equations for Two-Phase Flow

Introduction

Averaging Operators for Two-Phase Flow

Volume-Averaged Properties

Area-Averaged Properties

Mixture Equations for One-Dimensional Flow

Control-Volume Integral Transport Equations

One-Dimensional Space-Averaged Transport Equations

References

Problems

Thermodynamics of Nuclear Energy Conversion Systems: Nonflow and Steady Flow: First and Second Law Applications

Introduction

Nonflow Process

Thermodynamic Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Simplified Pwr System

More Complex Rankine Cycles: Superheat, Reheat, Regeneration, and Moisture Separation

Simple Brayton Cycle

More Complex Brayton Cycles

Reference

Problems

Thermodynamics of Nuclear EnergyConversion Systems: Nonsteady Flow First Law Analysis

Introduction

Containment Pressurization Process

Response of a PWR Pressurizer to Load Changes

References

Problems

Thermal Analysis of Fuel Elements

Introduction

Heat Conduction in Fuel Elements

Thermal Properties of UO2 and MOx

Temperature Distribution in Plate Fuel Elements

Temperature Distribution in Cylindrical Fuel Pins

Temperature Distribution in Restructured Fuel Elements

Thermal Resistance Between Fuel and Coolant

References

Problems

Single-Phase Fluid Mechanics

Approach to Simplified Flow Analysis

Inviscid Flow

Viscous Flow

Laminar Flow Inside a Channel

Turbulent Flow Inside a Channel

Pressure Drop in Rod Bundles

References

Problems

Single-Phase Heat Transfer

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer Analysis

Laminar Heat Transfer in a Pipe

Turbulent Heat Transfer: Mixing Length Approach

Turbulent Heat Transfer: Differential Approach

Heat Transfer Correlations in Turbulent Flow

References

Problems

Two-Phase Flow Dynamics

Introduction

Flow Regimes

Flow Models

Overview of Void Fraction and Pressure Loss Correlations

Void Fraction Correlations

Pressure-Drop Relations

Critical Flow

References

Problems

Pool Boiling

Introduction

Nucleation

The Pool Boiling Curve

Heat Transfer Regimes

Surface Effects in Pool Boiling

Condensation Heat Transfer

References

Problems

Flow Boiling

Introduction

Heat Transfer Regions and Void Fraction/Quality Development

Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations

Critical Condition or Boiling Crisis

References

Problems

Single Heated Channel: Steady-State Analysis

Introduction

Formulation of One-Dimensional Flow Equations

Delineation of Behavior Modes

The Lwr Cases Analyzed in Subsequent Sections

Steady-State Single-Phase Flow in a Heated Channel

Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in a Heated Channel Under Fully Equilibrium (Thermal and Mechanical) Conditions

Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in a Heated Channel Under Nonequilbrium Conditions

References

Problems

APPENDICES

Appendix A: NOMENCLATURE

Appendix B: PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS

Appendix C: UNIT SYSTEMS

Appendix D: MATHEMATICAL TABLES

Appendix E: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

Appendix F: THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME SUBSTANCES

Appendix G: DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS OF FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

Appendix H: MULTIPLYING PREFIXES

Appendix I: LIST OF ELEMENTS

Appendix J: SQUARE AND HEXAGONAL ARRAY DIMENSIONS

Appendix K PARAMETERS FOR TYPICAL PWR AND BWR-5 REACTORS

About the Authors

Dr. Neil Todreas is professor emeritus at MIT. He has extensive nuclear power experience, having led an industry review group on the Three Mile Island situation from 1983-1988 and served on the NRC's Reactor Safety Research Committee. In addition to his part-time teaching and research, Dr. Todreas continues to be a leading consultant to industry and government. He is a Fellow at the ASME and a member of the national academy of engineering.

Dr. Mujid Kazimi is a professor and former head of the Department of Nuclear Engineering at MIT. He also has extensive nuclear power experience, having served on the Board of Managers of the Idaho National Energy Laboratory. He is also a Fellow at the American Nuclear Society and the AAAS, and a member of the AIChE, ASME and ASEE. Dr. Kazimi has been involved with several nuclear safety studies throughout his career, covering reactor systems, as well as their fuel cycles.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
SCI065000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General