The expansion of unconventional petroleum resources in the recent decade and the rapid development of computational technology have provided the opportunity to develop and apply 3D numerical modeling technology to simulate the hydraulic fracturing of shale and tight sand formations. This book presents 3D numerical modeling technologies for hydraulic fracturing developed in recent years, and introduces solutions to various 3D geomechanical problems related to hydraulic fracturing. In the solution processes of the case studies included in the book, fully coupled multi-physics modeling has been adopted, along with innovative computational techniques, such as submodeling.
In practice, hydraulic fracturing is an essential project component in shale gas/oil development and tight sand oil, and provides an essential measure in the process of drilling cuttings reinjection (CRI). It is also an essential measure for widened mud weight window (MWW) when drilling through naturally fractured formations; the process of hydraulic plugging is a typical application of hydraulic fracturing. 3D modeling and numerical analysis of hydraulic fracturing is essential for the successful development of tight oil/gas formations: it provides accurate solutions for optimized stage intervals in a multistage fracking job. It also provides optimized well-spacing for the design of zipper-frac wells.
Numerical estimation of casing integrity under stimulation injection in the hydraulic fracturing process is one of major concerns in the successful development of unconventional resources. This topic is also investigated numerically in this book. Numerical solutions to several other typical geomechanics problems related to hydraulic fracturing, such as fluid migration caused by fault reactivation and seismic activities, are also presented.
This book can be used as a reference textbook to petroleum, geotechnical and geothermal engineers, to senior undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, and to geologists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists and applied mathematicians working in this field. This book is also a synthetic compendium of both the fundamentals and some of the most advanced aspects of hydraulic fracturing technology.
1 Introduction to continuum damage mechanics for rock-like materials
1.2 The Barcelona model: scalar damage with different behaviors for tension and compression
1.3 Mazars’s holonomic form of continuum damage model
1.4 Subroutine forUMAT and a plastic damage model with stress triaxiality-dependent hardening
2 Optimizing multistage hydraulic-fracturing design based on 3D continuum damage mechanics analysis
2.2 The workflow
2.3 Validation example
3 Numerical analysis of the interaction between two zipper fracture wells using the continuum damage method
3.2 Submodel for stimulation process simulation
4 Integrated workflow for feasibility study of cuttings reinjection based on 3D geomechanical analysis and case study
4.2 The integrated workflow
4.3 Fault reactivation analysis
4.4 Examples of validation
4.5 Fault reactivation and seismicity analysis
5 Geomechanics-based wellbore trajectory optimization for tight formation with natural fractures
5.2 Determining optimized trajectory in terms of the CSF concept
5.3 Trajectory optimization focusing on a fracturing design for a disturbed field
5.4 Concluding remarks
6 Numerical solution of widened mud weight window for drilling through naturally fractured reservoirs
6.2 Model description: theory
6.3 Fluid flow model of the cohesive element
6.4 Validation example: widened mud weight window for simple cases
6.6 Case Study 1: widened mud weight window (MWW) for subsalt well in deepwater Gulf of Mexico
6.7 Case Study 2: widened MWW for drilling in shale formation
7 Numerical estimation of upper bound of injection pressure window with casing integrity under hydraulic fracturing
7.3 Validation example
7.4 Ending remarks
8 Damage model for reservoir with multisets of natural fractures and its application in the simulation of hydraulic fracturing
8.2 Expression of natural fractures with continuum-damage variable
8.3 Damage initiation condition
8.4 Damage evolution law
8.5 Damage-dependent permeability
8.6 Validation example: hydraulic fracturing of formation with natural fractures
9 Construction of complex initial stress field and stress re-orientation caused by depletion
9.2 Construct initial stress field with a local model of complex stress pattern
9.3 Construction of initial geostress field and simulation of stress variation caused by pore pressure depletion
10 Information transfer software from finite difference grid to finite element mesh
10.2 Description of principle
10.3 Numerical validation
Book Series Editors: Jochen Bundschuh (University of Applied Sciences, Karlsruhe, Germany & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm , Sweden) and Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga (Private Consultant, Morelia, Mexico).
The book series addresses novel mathematical and numerical techniques with an interdisciplinary focus that cuts across all fields of science, engineering and technology. A
unique collection of worked problems provide understanding of complicated coupled
phenomena and processes, its forecasting and approaches to problem-solving for a
diverse group of applications in physical, chemical, biological, geoscientific, medical
and other fields. The series responds to the explosively growing interest in numerical
modeling of coupled processes in general and its expansion to ever more sophisticated
physics. Examples of topics in this series include natural resources exploration and
exploitation (e.g. water resources and geothermal and petroleum reservoirs), natural
disaster risk reduction (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), evaluation and
mitigation of human-induced phenomena as climate change, and optimization of
engineering systems (e.g. construction design, manufacturing processes).
Editorial Board: Iouri Ballachov (USA); Jacob Bear (Israel); Angelika Bunse-Gerstner (Germany); Chun-Jung Chen (Taiwan); Alexander H.D. Cheng (USA); Martin A. Diaz Viera (Mexico); Hans J. Diersch (Germany); Jesus A. Dominguez (USA); Donald Estep (USA); Ed Fontes (Sweden); Edward Furlani (USA); Ismael Herrera (Mexico); Jim Knox (USA); William Layton (USA); Kewen Li (USA); Jen-Fin Lin (Taiwan); Rainald Lohner (USA); Emily Nelson (USA); Enrico Nobile (Italy); Jennifer Ryan (Netherlands); Rosalind Sadleir (USA); Fernando Samaniego V. (Mexico); Peter Schatzl (Germany); Xinpu Shen (USA); Roger Thunvik (Sweden); Clifford I. Voss (USA); Thomas Westermann (Germany); Michael Zilberbrand (Israel).