530 Pages 156 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    530 Pages 156 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Ohmic heating provides rapid and uniform heating, resulting in less thermal damage than conventional heating and allowing manufacturers to obtain high-quality products with minimum sensorial, nutritional, and structural changes. Ohmic Heating in Food Processing covers several aspects of Ohmic heating: science and engineering, chemistry and physics, biochemistry and nutrition, quality and safety, and development and technology, both basic and applied. It describes the importance of Ohmic technology and how to implement it in practice, addressing basic theory, principles, and applications.

    Divided into nine sections, this volume covers the basics of Ohmic heating, including a historic overview and fundamental principles; electrical conductivity, its importance, factors that influence it, and data modeling; biological effects of electricity on foods and food components, including microorganisms, enzymes, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and Ohmic heating behavior and design parameters. The book also deals with issues in Ohmic heating equipment, Ohmic heating modeling issues, and process validation issues.

    The authors discuss various applications of Ohmic heating applied to different classes of foods, such as muscle foods (meat, poultry, and fish), dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. They also examine commercially successful applications of food products processed by Ohmic heating and considers applications of Ohmic heating where preservation is not the main focus, for example, blanching, Ohmic thawing, and the potential for Ohmic heating for long-duration space missions.

    Section 1 Basics of Ohmic Heating

    Overview of Ohmic Heating
    Sudhir K. Sastry

    Why Ohmic Heating? Advantages, Applications, Technology, and Limitations
    Sudhir K. Sastry, Brian F. Heskitt, Sanjay S. Sarang, Romel Somavat, and Ken Ayotte

    Section 2 Electrical Conductivity

    Electrical Conductivity: Importance and Methods of Measurement
    Mohammad Reza Zareifard, Michele Marcotte, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, and Yousef Karimi-Zindashty

    The Electrical Conductivity of Foods
    Mohammad Reza Zareifard, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, Michele Marcotte, and Yousef Karimi-Zindashty

    Factors Influencing Electrical Conductivity
    Mohammad Reza Zareifard, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, Michele Marcotte, and Yousef Karimi-Zindashty

    Modeling of Electrical Conductivity in the Context of Ohmic Heating
    Mohammad Reza Zareifard, Michele Marcotte, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, and Yousef Karimi-Zindashty

    Section 3 Biological Effects of Electricity on Foods

    Electricity Effects on Microorganisms and Enzymes
    António Augusto Vicente, Ricardo Nuno Pereira, Thereza Christina V. Penna, and Marcos Knirsch

    Effect of Ohmic Heating on Fish Proteins and Other Biopolymers
    Jae W. Park and Zachary H. Reed

    Electrochemical Reactions during Ohmic Heating and Moderate Electric Field Processing
    Chaminda P. Samaranayake and Sudhir K. Sastry

    Section 4 Ohmic Heating Behavior and Design Parameters

    Ohmic Heating Behavior of Foods
    Ricardo Simpson, Erica Carevic, Romina Grancelli, and Jorge Moreno

    Electrodes in Ohmic Heating
    Yetenayet Bekele Tola, Navneet Singh Rattan, and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

    Energy Efficiency and Control of the Ohmic Heating Process
    Luc Fillaudeau and Sami Gnhimi

    Section 5 Equipment for Ohmic Heating

    Ohmic Heating Laboratory Units
    Sanjay S. Sarang, Brian F. Heskitt, and Sudhir K. Sastry

    Tubular and Fluid Jet Units
    Sami Ghnimi, Guillaume Delaplace, and Luc Fillaudeau

    Section 6 Modeling of Ohmic Heating

    Modeling Basics as Applied to Ohmic Heating of Liquid and Wall Cooling
    Jean-Pierre Pain and Frans L. Muller

    Modeling: Static vs. Continuous Systems
    Filiz Içier

    Sensitivity Analysis of the Ohmic Heating Process
    Cuiren Chen, Khalid Abdelrahim, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, and Michele Marcotte

    Section 7 Ohmic Heating as Applied to Specific Foods

    Ohmic Heating of Muscle Foods (Meat, Poultry, and Fish Products)
    James G. Lyng

    Applications of Ohmic Heating to Milk and Dairy Products
    Ajaypal Singh, Navneet Singh Rattan, Phani Tej Raghav Narayanapurapu, and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

    Fruits and Vegetables
    Gary Tucker

    Commercially Successful Applications
    Gary Tucker

    Section 8 Other Applications and Future Uses of Ohmic Heating

    Ohmic Blanching
    Filiz Içier and Hayriye Bozkurt

    Ohmic Heating as Thawing and Tempering Technology
    Nadide Seyhun, Servet Gulum Sumnu, and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

    Ohmic Heating as an Aseptic Sterilization Process for Particulate Foods
    Luc Fillaudeau and Legrand Alexandra

    Ohmic Heating for Space Applications
    Sudhir K. Sastry

    Ohmic Cooking of Food
    Mohammad M. Farid, Wei Jian Kong, and Necati Ozkan

    Marta Orlowska, Alain LeBail, and Michel Havet

    Section 9 Process Validation

    Validation of Ohmic Processing Systems
    Dilip I. Chandarana

    Biovalidation of Ohmic Processing Systems
    Khalid Abdelrahim, Suzanne Tortorelli, and Cuiren Chen

    Regulatory Issues
    Gregory J. Fleischman



    Dr. Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy is a professor of food processing at McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada. He has established a very strong research program in several areas of postharvest technology and food processing. Dr. Ramaswamy is active in food process engineering research and has published more than 300 papers in refereed scientific journals, presented over 400 papers at conferences, and has been an invited keynote speaker at several international conferences. Dr. Ramaswamy has been conferred several prestigious awards including WJ Eva and President’s Awards (CIFST), John Clark Award (CSBE), Merit Pin (IFTPS), and Fellowships of CIFST and CSBE.

    Dr. Michèle Marcotte is currently the director of Research and Development at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) located at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Ottawa. She authored and coauthored more than 60 peer-reviewed papers, 120 conference papers, and 45 research reports. Dr. Marcotte developed a unique two-step drying process for cranberries that was implemented commercially in Quebec. She has received nine significant awards/prizes.

    Dr. Sudhir K. Sastry is a professor in the Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering at The Ohio State University. His research interests include Ohmic heating, aseptic, high pressure and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, the influence of moderate electric fields on biological materials, and the safety of fresh produce. He has published over 170 papers, six patents, and a book titled Aseptic Processing of Particulate Foods. He also recently completed a project for NASA, where he and his colleagues developed new, reusable food packaging for NASA’s lunar and Mars missions.

    Khalid Abdelrahim, Ph.D., is currently the thermal processing manager and process authority for Nestle USA and Nestle Canada, Glendale, California. He is responsible for the thermal process support of the Coffee Mate, NesQuik, Carnation Evaporated Milk, Libbey’s Pumpkin, and so on. He was with Campbell Soup Company during the period 2002–2011, where he was recognized with the Campbell’s CEO Award, and he developed and filed the first Ohmic heating process for Campbell Soup with the Food and Drug Administration.