Oil Spill Dispersants: Mechanisms of Action and Laboratory Tests provides a comprehensive summary of current information available regarding the general formulation of commercial dispersants and their function to lower oil-water interfacial tension. The book considers how chemical dispersants work for oil spills, the properties and chemistry of oils (including weathering state), the variables that affect dispersant performance, and the relationships between laboratory methods and field situations.
The book also considers the strengths and limitations of specific laboratory tests, including brief discussions of the applicability of results for estimating dispersant performance in field trials or conditions encountered during real spill events. Laboratory tests are separated into four groups: tank tests, shake/flask tests, interfacial surface tension tests, and flume tests. Rapid-screen field tests are considered as a separate group. Recommendations for improvements in future laboratory testing are offered as well. Oil Spill Dispersants will be useful for regulators evaluating dispersant agents, field personnel involved with using dispersants, laboratory scientists studying performance and behavior of oil and dispersants, and managers responsible for designing studies related to the treatment of oil slicks with dispersants.
Introduction. General Mechanism of Action of Chemical Dispersants. Chemical Formulation of Dispersant Agents. Factors Affecting Chemical Dispersion of Oil and Its Measurement. Properties and Chemistry of Oil. Dispersant Composition. Dispersant Application. Mixing Energy. Dispersant-To-Oil Ratio (DOR). Oil-To-Water Ratio (OWR). Temperature. Salinity. Sampling and Analysis Method. Laboratory Testing of Dispersant Performance. Laboratory Testing Methods. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Laboratory Tests. Rapid Field Tests for Estimating Dispersant Performance. Field Tests of Dispersant Applications. Summary and Recommendations-Laboratory Studies. References. Index. Appendix A: Preparation Approach for this Book.