Open Pit Mine Planning and Design, Two Volume Set & CD-ROM Pack, Third Edition: 3rd Edition (Pack) book cover

Open Pit Mine Planning and Design, Two Volume Set & CD-ROM Pack, Third Edition

By William A. Hustrulid, Mark Kuchta, Randall K. Martin

© 2013 – CRC Press

1,308 pages

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pub: 2013-08-30
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About the Book

Building on the success of its 2006 predecessor, this 3rd edition of Open Pit Mine Planning and Design has been both updated and extended, ensuring that it remains the most complete and authoritative account of modern open pit mining available. Five new chapters on unit operations have been added, the revenues and costs chapter has been substantially revised and updated, and the references have been brought fully up to date. In addition, the pack now also includes a fully working version of the MicroMODEL mine planning software package.

Volume 1 deals with the fundamental concepts involved in the planning and design of open pit mines. Subjects covered are mine planning, mining revenues and costs, orebody description, geometrical considerations, pit limits, production planning, mineral resources and ore reserves, responsible mining, rock blasting, rotary drilling, shovel loading, haulage trucks and machine availability and utilization.

Volume 2 includes CSMine and MicroMODEL, user-friendly mine planning and design software packages developed specifically to illustrate the practical application of the involved principles. It also comprises the CSMine and MicroMODEL tutorials and user’s manuals and eight orebody case examples, including drillhole data sets for performing a complete open pit mine evaluation.

Open Pit Mine Planning and Design is an excellent textbook for courses in surface mine design, open pit design, geological and excavation engineering, and in advanced open pit mine planning and design. The principles described apply worldwide. In addition, the work can be used as a practical reference by professionals. The step-by-step approach to mine design and planning offers a fast-path approach to the material for both undergraduate and graduate students. The outstanding software guides the student through the planning and design steps, and the eight drillhole data sets allow the student to practice the described principles on different mining properties (three copper properties, three iron properties and two gold properties). The well-written text, the large number of illustrative examples and case studies, the included software, the review questions and exercises and the reference lists included at the end of each chapter provide the student with all the material needed to effectively learn the theory and application of open pit mine planning and design.


The two volumes […] make up a comprehensive guidebook of all aspects related to mine planning and design and are an excellent reference for aspects such as the economic evaluation of ‘surface’ ore deposits, statistical analysis of mineralization data, open-pit mining procedures and issues such as sustainability. Each chapter ends with a detailed list of hundreds of references and bibliography, followed by a series of ‘Review combined questions and exercises’ that would assist any mining engineering lecturer in setting assignments, tests and examinations. As a handbook for any aspiring mining engineer, there is no doubt that this is a very valuable document and package.

Phil Paige-Green, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol. 48, 2015, pp. 264

Appropriate for diverse audiences, this book is an outstanding technical reference that provides the reader with an understanding of the fundamental principles associated with the design and planning of modern surface open-pit mines. The book is well-written and addresses topical subjects in a manner highly conducive for use in undergraduate and graduate education, as well as by a wide range of professionals interested in the subject. The text emphasizes the influence of economic and environmental considerations in mine design and planning, where applied engineering principles and approaches are effectively introduced through numerous examples and exercises. While the book is ideally suited for students in mineral related disciplines, seasoned professionals will also find it extremely useful as a technical reference. Overall, it is an excellent book that successfully introduces the interdisciplinary aspects of surface design and planning in a straight-forward, easy to understand manner that challenges the reader to think in a broader context about the subject.

Hugh B. Miller, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Mining Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

Over the years, attempts have been made to capture the essence of open pit engineering. Past volumes have been organized by assembling papers and chapters written by experts and practitioners. These works contain valuable information but often digress into specialized areas and frequently repeat introductory material. Students who are trying to put all this information into a practical context find the repetition tedious and often are overwhelmed by esoteric subtopics. In this two-volume treatise, Dr.Hustrulid and his coauthors have captured the essence of ore body modeling, open pit planning, unit operations, and responsible mining in an organized and succinct manner. This work is especially valuable for mining students who are eager to learn about open pit mining and for the faculty tasked to teach the topic. The software included with the volumes provides an excellent introduction to computerized planning and a logical transition to more complicated programs.

M. K. McCarter, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Mining Engineering, Malcolm N. McKinnon Endowed Chair, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Open Pit Mine Planning and Design is an ideal textbook for courses in surface mine design, open pit design, geological and excavation engineering, and in advanced open pit mine planning and design, and can also be a priceless reference resource for active professionals around the world.

Australian Journal of Mining, October 30, 2014

Table of Contents


1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 The meaning of ore

1.1.2 Some important definitions

1.2 Mine development phases

1.3 An initial data collection checklist

1.4 The planning phase

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 The content of an intermediate valuation report

1.4.3 The content of the feasibility report

1.5 Planning costs

1.6 Accuracy of estimates

1.6.1 Tonnage and grade

1.6.2 Performance

1.6.3 Costs

1.6.4 Price and revenue

1.7 Feasibility study preparation

1.8 Critical path representation

1.9 Mine reclamation

1.9.1 Introduction

1.9.2 Multiple-use management

1.9.3 Reclamation plan purpose

1.9.4 Reclamation plan content

1.9.5 Reclamation standards

1.9.6 Surface and ground water management

1.9.7 Mine waste management

1.9.8 Tailings and slime ponds

1.9.9 Cyanide heap and vat leach systems

1.9.10 Landform reclamation

1.10 Environmental planning procedures

1.10.1 Initial project evaluation

1.10.2 The strategic plan

1.10.3 The environmental planning team

1.11 A sample list of project permits and approvals

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Economic concepts including cash flow

2.2.1 Future worth

2.2.2 Present value

2.2.3 Present value of a series of uniform contributions

2.2.4 Payback period

2.2.5 Rate of return on an investment

2.2.6 Cash flow (CF)

2.2.7 Discounted cash flow (DCF)

2.2.8 Discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFROR)

2.2.9 Cash flows, DCF and DCFROR including depreciation

2.2.10 Depletion

2.2.11 Cash flows, including depletion

2.3 Estimating revenues

2.3.1 Current mineral prices

2.3.2 Historical price data

2.3.3 Trend analysis

2.3.4 Econometric models

2.3.5 Net smelter return

2.3.6 Price-cost relationships

2.4 Estimating costs

2.4.1 Types of costs

2.4.2 Costs from actual operations

2.4.3 Escalation of older costs

2.4.4 The original O’Hara cost estimator

2.4.5 The updated O’Hara cost estimator

2.4.6 Detailed cost calculations

2.4.7 Quick-and-dirty mining cost estimates

2.4.8 Current equipment, supplies and labor costs

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Mine maps

3.3 Geologic information

3.4 Compositing and tonnage factor calculations

3.4.1 Compositing

3.4.2 Tonnage factors

3.5 Method of vertical sections

3.5.1 Introduction

3.5.2 Procedures

3.5.3 Construction of a cross-section

3.5.4 Calculation of tonnage and average grade for a pit

3.6 Method of vertical sections (grade contours)

3.7 The method of horizontal sections

3.7.1 Introduction

3.7.2 Triangles

3.7.3 Polygons

3.8 Block models

3.8.1 Introduction

3.8.2 Rule-of-nearest points

3.8.3 Constant distance weighting techniques

3.9 Statistical basis for grade assignment

3.9.1 Some statistics on the orebody

3.9.2 Range of sample influence

3.9.3 Illustrative example

3.9.4 Describing variograms by mathematical models

3.9.5 Quantification of a deposit through variograms

3.10 Kriging

3.10.1 Introduction

3.10.2 Concept development

3.10.3 Kriging example

3.10.4 Example of estimation for a level

3.10.5 Block kriging

3.10.6 Common problems associated with the use of the kriging technique

3.10.7 Comparison of results using several techniques

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic bench geometry

4.3 Ore access

4.4 The pit expansion process

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Frontal cuts

4.4.3 Drive-by cuts

4.4.4 Parallel cuts

4.4.5 Minimum required operating room for parallel cuts

4.4.6 Cut sequencing

4.5 Pit slope geometry

4.6 Final pit slope angles

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Geomechanical background

4.6.3 Planar failure

4.6.4 Circular failure

4.6.5 Stability of curved wall sections

4.6.6 Slope stability data presentation

4.6.7 Slope analysis example

4.6.8 Economic aspects of final slope angles

4.7 Plan representation of bench geometry

4.8 Addition of a road

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Design of a spiral road – inside the wall

4.8.3 Design of a spiral ramp – outside the wall

4.8.4 Design of a switchback

4.8.5 The volume represented by a road

4.9 Road construction

4.9.1 Introduction

4.9.2 Road section design

4.9.3 Straight segment design

4.9.4 Curve design

4.9.5 Conventional parallel berm design

4.9.6 Median berm design

4.9.7 Haulage road gradients

4.9.8 Practical road building and maintenance tips

4.10 Stripping ratios

4.11 Geometric sequencing

4.12 Summary

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Hand methods

5.2.1 The basic concept

5.2.2 The net value calculation

5.2.3 Location of pit limits – pit bottom in waste

5.2.4 Location of pit limits – pit bottom in ore

5.2.5 Location of pit limits – one side plus pit bottom in ore

5.2.6 Radial sections

5.2.7 Generating a final pit outline

5.2.8 Destinations for in-pit materials

5.3 Economic block models

5.4 The floating cone technique

5.5 The Lerchs-Grossmann 2-D algorithm

5.6 Modification of the Lerchs-Grossmann 2-D algorithm to a 2½-D algorithm

5.7 The Lerchs-Grossmann 3-D algorithm

5.7.1 Introduction

5.7.2 Definition of some important terms and concepts

5.7.3 Two approaches to tree construction

5.7.4 The arbitrary tree approach (Approach 1)

5.7.5 The all root connection approach (Approach 2)

5.7.6 The tree ‘cutting’ process

5.7.7 A more complicated example

5.8 Computer assisted methods

5.8.1 The RTZ open-pit generator

5.8.2 Computer assisted pit design based upon sections

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Some basic mine life – plant size concepts

6.3 Taylor’s mine life rule

6.4 Sequencing by nested pits

6.5 Cash flow calculations

6.6 Mine and mill plant sizing

6.6.1 Ore reserves supporting the plant size decision

6.6.2 Incremental financial analysis principles

6.6.3 Plant sizing example

6.7 Lane’s algorithm

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Model definition

6.7.3 The basic equations

6.7.4 An illustrative example

6.7.5 Cutoff grade for maximum profit

6.7.6 Net present value maximization

6.8 Material destination considerations

6.8.1 Introduction

6.8.2 The leach dump alternative

6.8.3 The stockpile alternative

6.9 Production scheduling

6.9.1 Introduction

6.9.2 Phase scheduling

6.9.3 Block sequencing using set dynamic programming

6.9.4 Some scheduling examples

6.10 Push back design

6.10.1 Introduction

6.10.2 The basic manual steps

6.10.3 Manual push back design example

6.10.4 Time period plans

6.10.5 Equipment fleet requirements

6.10.6 Other planning considerations

6.11 The mine planning and design process – summary and closing remarks

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The JORC code – 2004 edition

7.2.1 Preamble

7.2.2 Foreword

7.2.3 Introduction

7.2.4 Scope

7.2.5 Competence and responsibility

7.2.6 Reporting terminology

7.2.7 Reporting – General

7.2.8 Reporting of exploration results

7.2.9 Reporting of mineral resources

7.2.10 Reporting of ore reserves

7.2.11 Reporting of mineralized stope fill, stockpiles, remnants, pillars, low grade mineralization and tailings

7.3 The CIM best practice guidelines for the estimation of mineral resources and mineral reserves – general guidelines

7.3.1 Preamble

7.3.2 Foreword

7.3.3 The resource database

7.3.4 Geological interpretation and modeling

7.3.5 Mineral resource estimation

7.3.6 Quantifying elements to convert a Mineral Resource to a Mineral Reserve

7.3.7 Mineral reserve estimation

7.3.8 Reporting

7.3.9 Reconciliation of mineral reserves

7.3.10 Selected references

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


8.1 Introduction

8.2 The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment

8.3 TheWorld Conservation Strategy (WCS) – 1980

8.4 World Commission on Environment and Development (1987)

8.5 The ‘Earth Summit’

8.5.1 The Rio Declaration

8.5.2 Agenda 21

8.6 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD)

8.7 Mining industry and mining industry-related initiatives

8.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2 The Global Mining Initiative (GMI)

8.7.3 International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM)

8.7.4 Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development (MMSD)

8.7.5 The U.S. Government and federal land management

8.7.6 The position of the U.S. National Mining Association (NMA)

8.7.7 The view of one mining company executive

8.8 ‘Responsible Mining’ – the way forward is good engineering

8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 The Milos Statement

8.9 Concluding remarks

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


9.1 General introduction to mining unit operations

9.2 Rock blasting

9.2.1 Rock fragmentation

9.2.2 Blast design flowsheet

9.2.3 Explosives as a source of fragmentation energy

9.2.4 Pressure-volume curves

9.2.5 Explosive strength

9.2.6 Energy use

9.2.7 Preliminary blast layout guidelines

9.2.8 Blast design rationale

9.2.9 Ratios for initial design

9.2.10 Ratio based blast design example

9.2.11 Determination of KB

9.2.12 Energy coverage

9.2.13 Concluding remarks

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


10.1 Brief history of rotary drill bits

10.2 Rock removal action

10.3 Rock bit components

10.4 Roller bit nomenclature

10.5 The rotary blasthole drill machine

10.6 The drill selection process

10.7 The drill string

10.8 Penetration rate – early fundamental studies

10.9 Penetration rate – field experience

10.10 Pulldown force

10.11 Rotation rate

10.12 Bit life estimates

10.13 Technical tips for best bit performance

10.14 Cuttings removal and bearing cooling

10.15 Production time factors

10.16 Cost calculations

10.17 Drill automation

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Operational practices

11.3 Dipper capacity

11.4 Some typical shovel dimensions, layouts and specifications

11.5 Ballast/counterbalance requirements

11.6 Shovel production per cycle

11.7 Cycle time

11.8 Cycles per shift

11.9 Shovel productivity example

11.10 Design guidance from regulations

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sizing the container

12.3 Powering the container

12.4 Propeling the container – mechanical drive systems

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 Performance curves

12.4.3 Rimpull utilization

12.4.4 Retardation systems

12.4.5 Specifications for a modern mechanical drive truck

12.4.6 Braking systems

12.5 Propelling the container – electrical drive systems

12.5.1 Introduction

12.5.2 Application of the AC-drive option to a large mining truck

12.5.3 Specifications of a large AC-drive mining truck

12.5.4 Calculation of truck travel time

12.6 Propelling the container – trolley assist

12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 Trolley-equipped Komatsu 860E truck

12.6.3 Cycle time calculation for the Komatsu 860E truck with trolley assist

12.7 Calculation of truck travel time – hand methods

12.7.1 Introduction

12.7.2 Approach 1 – Equation of motion method

12.7.3 Approach 2 – Speed factor method

12.8 Calculation of truck travel time – computer methods

12.8.1 Caterpillar haulage simulator

12.8.2 Speed-factor based simulator

12.9 Autonomous haulage

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Time flow

13.3 Availability – node 1

13.4 Utilization – node 2

13.5 Working efficiency – node 3

13.6 Job efficiency – node 4

13.7 Maintenance efficiency – node 5

13.8 Estimating annual operating time and production capacity

13.9 Estimating shift operating time and production capacity

13.10 Annual time flow in rotary drilling

13.11 Application in prefeasibility work

References and bibliography

Review questions and exercises


14.1 Getting started

14.1.1 Hardware requirements

14.1.2 Installing CSMine

14.1.3 Running CSMine

14.2 The Arizona Copper property description

14.3 Steps needed to create a block model

14.4 Data files required for creating a block model

14.5 CSMine program design overview

14.6 Executing commands with CSMine

14.7 Starting the tutorial

14.8 The drill hole mode

14.8.1 Reading the drill hole file

14.8.2 Defining the block grid

14.8.3 Creating a drill hole plan map

14.8.4 Creating a drill hole section map

14.9 The composite mode

14.9.1 Calculating composites

14.9.2 Storing and loading composite files

14.9.3 Drill hole section plots with composites

14.10 The block mode

14.10.1 Calculating block grades

14.10.2 Creating block value plots

14.10.3 Creating contour maps

14.10.4 Assigning economic values to the blocks

14.10.5 The Restrictions command

14.10.6 Pit plots

14.10.7 The Slopes command

14.10.8 The Save and Print commands

14.11 Conclusion

14.12 Suggested exercises


15.1 Basics

15.1.1 File types

15.1.2 The project file

15.1.3 Changing modes

15.1.4 Formatting the data screen

15.1.5 Sorting data

15.1.6 Printing data

15.1.7 Coordinate system description

15.2 Drill hole mode

15.2.1 Drill hole data file description

15.2.2 Reading a drill hole file

15.2.3 Plotting a drill hole plan map

15.2.4 Plotting a drill hole section map

15.3 Composite mode

15.3.1 How composites are calculated

15.3.2 Creating composites

15.3.3 Saving composite files

15.3.4 Reading composite files

15.3.5 Composite file description

15.4 Block model mode

15.4.1 Defining the block model grid

15.4.2 Surface topography

15.4.3 Assigning block values

15.4.4 Creating a block model

15.4.5 Saving a block file

15.4.6 Reading a block file

15.4.7 Block file description

15.5 Economic block values

15.5.1 How economic values are calculated

15.5.2 Evaluation of the default formulas

15.5.3 Creating an economic block model

15.6 Pit modeling

15.6.1 Surface topography restrictions

15.6.2 Geometric pit limit restriction and pit slopes

15.6.3 Positive apexed cone limits

15.6.4 Three-dimensional floating cone

15.6.5 Entering pit slopes

15.6.6 Turning pit restrictions on and off

15.7 Block plots

15.7.1 The Configure command

15.7.2 The Next command

15.7.3 The Previous command

15.7.4 The Return command

15.7.5 Controlling which blocks are plotted

15.8 Contour plot

15.8.1 The Configure command

15.8.2 The Next command

15.8.3 The Previous command

15.8.4 The Return command

15.9 Plotting pit profiles

15.9.1 The Configure command

15.9.2 The Surface command

15.9.3 The Geometric command

15.9.4 The Outer_Economic command

15.9.5 The Floating_Cone command

15.9.6 The Return command

15.10 Block reports

15.10.1 The Restrictions command

15.10.2 The Configure command

15.10.3 The Return command

15.11 Summary statistics

15.11.1 The EX1.CMP data set

15.11.2 The EX2.CMP data set

15.11.3 Summary statistics description

15.11.4 Is a distribution normal?

15.11.5 Is a distribution lognormal?

15.11.6 The Transform command

15.11.7 The Statistics command

15.12 Variogram modeling

15.12.1 Introduction

15.12.2 Experimental variogram modeling

15.12.3 Anisotropy

15.12.4 The Variogram command



16.1 Introduction

16.2 Program overview

16.2.1 Introduction

16.2.2 Data Entry Module overview

16.2.3 Surface Modeling Module overview

16.2.4 Rock Modeling Module overview

16.2.5 Drill Hole Compositing Module overview

16.2.6 Grade Modeling Module overview

16.2.7 Pit Generation and Reserves Evaluation Module overview

16.3 Data Entry Tutorial

16.3.1 Introduction

16.3.2 Some notes on input files

16.3.3 Getting started

16.3.4 Starting a demo project

16.3.5 Some special considerations

16.3.6 Constructing the Ariz_Cu model

16.4 Pit Generation tutorial

16.4.1 Introduction

16.4.2 Surface topography

16.4.3 Rock modeling

16.4.4 Compositing

16.4.5 Grade modeling

16.4.6 Pit creation

16.4.7 File manager

16.4.8 Happy times

16.5 Other data sets – Continuation

17 Orebody case examples

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Arizona Copper property

17.2.1 Introduction

17.2.2 Historical background

17.2.3 Property topography

17.2.4 Geologic description

17.2.5 Mineralization

17.2.6 Drill hole data

17.2.7 Mining considerations

17.3 The Minnesota Natural Iron property

17.3.1 Introduction

17.3.2 Access

17.3.3 Climatic conditions

17.3.4 Historical background

17.3.5 Topography

17.3.6 General geologic setting

17.3.7 Mine-specific geology

17.3.8 An initial hand design

17.3.9 Economic basis

17.4 The Utah Iron property

17.4.1 Background

17.4.2 Mining history of the district

17.4.3 Property topography and surface vegetation

17.4.4 Climate

17.4.5 General geology

17.4.6 Mineralization

17.4.7 Mineral processing

17.4.8 Pit slopes

17.4.9 Initial cost estimates

17.4.10 Other considerations

17.5 The Minnesota Taconite property

17.5.1 Introduction

17.5.2 Location

17.5.3 History

17.5.4 Topography and surface conditions

17.5.5 General geology

17.5.6 Structural data

17.5.7 Mining data

17.5.8 Ore processing

17.6 The Kennecott Barneys Canyon Gold property

17.6.1 Introduction

17.6.2 Geologic setting

17.6.3 Resource definition

17.6.4 Geotechnical data

17.6.5 Topography and surface conditions

17.6.6 Climate

17.6.7 Ore processing

17.6.8 Mining data

17.7 The Newmont Gold property

17.7.1 Introduction

17.7.2 Property location

17.7.3 General geologic setting

17.7.4 Deposit mineralization

17.7.5 Topography and surface conditions

17.7.6 Local climatic conditions

17.7.7 Initial pit modeling parameters

17.8 The Codelco Andina Copper property

17.8.1 Introduction

17.8.2 Background information

17.8.3 Geology

17.8.4 Structural geology

17.8.5 Geotechnical slope analysis and design

17.8.6 Unit operations and initial costs for generating a pit

17.9 The Codelco Norte Copper property

17.9.1 Introduction

17.9.2 Location and access

17.9.3 Geology

17.9.4 Geotechnical information

17.9.5 Open pit geometry

17.9.6 Material handling systems

17.9.7 Metallurgical testing/process development

17.9.8 Leach pad design and operation

17.9.9 Mine design and plan

17.9.10 Unit operations and manpower

17.9.11 Economic analysis



About the Authors

William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in Luleå, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington.

Mark Kuchta studied Mining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines and received his Ph.D. degree from the Technical University in Luleå, Sweden. He has had a wide-ranging career in the mining business. This has included working as a contract miner in the uranium mines of western Colorado and 10 years of experience in various positions with LKAB in northern Sweden. At present, Mark is an Associate Professor of Mining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines. He is actively involved in the education of future mining engineers at both undergraduate and graduate levels and conducts a very active research program. His professional interests include the use of high-pressure waterjets for rock scaling applications in underground mines, strategic mine planning, advanced mine production scheduling and the development of user-friendly mine software.

Randall K. “Randy” Martin studied Metallurgical Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines and later received a Master of Science in Mineral Economics from Mines. He has over thirty years of experience as a geologic modeler and mine planner, having worked for Amax Mining, Pincock, Allen & Holt, and Tetratech. Currently he serves as President of R.K. Martin and Associates, Inc. His company performs consulting services, and also markets and supports a variety of software packages which are used in the mining industry. He is the principal author of the MicroMODEL® software included with this textbook.

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