Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models  book cover
2nd Edition

Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models

ISBN 9780429159251
Published December 1, 2014 by CRC Press
899 Pages

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Book Description

Carefully structured to instill practical knowledge of fundamental issues, Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models describes the modeling of optically amplified fiber communications systems using MATLAB® and Simulink®. This lecture-based book focuses on concepts and interpretation, mathematical procedures, and engineering applications, shedding light on device behavior and dynamics through computer modeling.

Supplying a deeper understanding of the current and future state of optical systems and networks, this Second Edition:

  • Reflects the latest developments in optical fiber communications technology
  • Includes new and updated case studies, examples, end-of-chapter problems, and MATLAB® and Simulink® models
  • Emphasizes DSP-based coherent reception techniques essential to advancement in short- and long-term optical transmission networks

Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models, Second Edition is intended for use in university and professional training courses in the specialized field of optical communications. This text should also appeal to students of engineering and science who have already taken courses in electromagnetic theory, signal processing, and digital communications, as well as to optical engineers, designers, and practitioners in industry.

Table of Contents


List of Abbreviations


Historical Perspectives

Digital Modulation for Advanced Optical Transmission Systems

Demodulation Techniques

MATLAB® Simulink® Platform

Organization of the Book Chapters

Optical Fibers: Geometrical and Guiding Properties

Motivations and Some Historical Background

Dielectric Slab Optical Waveguides


Numerical Aperture

Modes of Symmetric Dielectric Slab Waveguides

Optical-Guided Modes

Cutoff Properties

Optical Fiber: General Properties

Geometrical Structures and Index Profile

The Fundamental Mode of Weakly Guiding Fibers

Cutoff Properties

Single and Few Mode Conditions

Power Distribution and Approximation of Spot Size

Power Distribution

Approximation of Spot Size r0 of a Step-Index Fiber

Equivalent Step-Index (ESI) Description

Definitions of ESI Parameters

Accuracy and Limits

Examples on ESI Techniques

General Method

Nonlinear Optical Effects

Nonlinear Phase Modulation Effects

Optical Fiber Manufacturing and Cabling

Concluding Remarks



Optical Fibers: Signal Attenuation and Dispersion


Signal Attenuation in Optical Fibers

Intrinsic or Material Attenuation


Rayleigh Scattering

Waveguide Loss

Bending Loss

Microbending Loss

Joint or Splice Loss

Attenuation Coefficient

Signal Distortion in Optical Fibers

Basics on Group Velocity

Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD)

Transfer Function of Single-Mode Fibers

Higher-Order Dispersion

Transmission Bit-Rate and the Dispersion Factor

Polarization Mode Dispersion

Fiber Nonlinearity

Advanced Optical Fibers: Dispersion-Shifted, -Flattened, and -Compensated Optical Fibers

Effects of Mode Hopping

Numerical Solution: Split-Step Fourier Method

Symmetrical Split-Step Fourier Method (SSFM)

MATLAB® Program and MATLAB® Simulink® Models of the SSFM

Modeling of Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Optimization of Symmetrical SSFM

Concluding Remarks


Appendix: MATLAB® Program for the Design of Optical Fibers—A Solution to the Mini-Project Design

Appendix: Program Listings for the Design of Standard Single-Mode Fiber

Appendix: Program Listings for Design of Nonzero Dispersion-Shifted Fibers

Appendix: Program Listings of the Split Step Fourier Method with SPM and Raman Gain Distribution

Appendix: Program Listings of Initialization File



Overview of Modeling Techniques for Optical Transmission Systems Using MATLAB® Simulink®


Optical Transmitter

Background of External Optical Modulators

Optical Phase Modulator

Optical Intensity Modulator

Impairments of Optical Fiber

Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Chromatic Dispersion as a Total of Material Dispersion and Waveguide Dispersion

Dispersion Length

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Fiber Nonlinearity

Modeling of Fiber Propagation

Symmetrical SSFM

Modeling of PMD

Optimization of Symmetrical SSFM

Optical Amplifiers

Optical and Electrical Filters

Optical Receiver

Performance Evaluation

Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR)

OSNR Penalty

Eye Opening (EO)

Conventional Evaluation Methods

Novel Statistical Methods

MATLAB® Simulink® Modeling Platform

General Model

Initialization File

OCSS©: A MATLAB® Simulation Platform


System Design Using Software Simulation

Optical Communication Systems Simulator: OCSS© Simulation Platform

Transmitter Module

Optical Fiber Module

Receiver Module

System Simulation

Equalized Optical Communications Systems

Soliton Optical Communications Systems


Concluding Remarks


Optical Direct and External Modulation


Direct Modulation

Introductory Remarks

Physics of Semiconductor Lasers

Modeling and Development of Optical Transmitter

Conditions for the Laser Rate Equations

Power Output and Eye-Diagram Analysis

Introduction to Optical External Modulation

Phase Modulators

Intensity Modulators

Phasor Representation and Transfer Characteristics

Bias Control

Chirp-Free Optical Modulators

Structures of Photonic Modulators

Typical Operational Parameters

Electro-Absorption Modulators

Silicon-Based Optical Modulators

MATLAB® Simulink® Models of External Optical Modulators



OCSS Simulation Platform

Initial Conditions for Photon Density, S(t) and Carrier Density, N(t)


Advanced Modulation Format Optical Transmitters


Digital Modulation Formats

ASK Modulation Formats and Pulse Shaping

Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

Phasor Representation of CSRZ Pulses

Phasor Representation of RZ33 Pulses

Differential Phase Shift Keying


Optical DPSK Transmitter

Generation of Modulation Formats

Amplitude–Modulation ASK–NRZ and ASK–RZ

Discrete Phase–Modulation NRZ Formats

Photonic MSK Transmitter Using Two Cascaded Electro-Optic Phase Modulators

Optical MSK Transmitter Using Mach–Zehnder Intensity Modulators: I–Q Approach

Single Sideband (SSB) Optical Modulators

Optical RZ–MSK

Multi-Carrier Multiplexing (MCM) Optical Modulators

Spectra of Modulation Formats

Generation of QAM Signals


Optimum Setting for Square Constellations


Appendix: Structures of Mach–Zehnder Modulator



Direct Detection Optical Receivers


Optical Receivers in Various Systems

Receiver Components


Detection and Noises

Linear Channel

Data Recovery

Noises in Photodetectors

Receiver Noises

Noise Calculations

Performance Calculations for Binary Digital Optical Systems

Signals Received

Probability Distribution

Minimum Average Optical Received Power

Total Output Noises and Pulse Shape Parameters

An HEMT-Matched Noise Network Preamplifier

Matched Network for Noise Reduction

Noise Theory and Equivalent Input Noise Current

Trans Impedance Amplifier: Differential and Nondifferential Types

Concluding Remarks

Appendix: Noise Equations



Digital Coherent Optical Receivers


Coherent Receiver Components

Coherent Detection

Optical Heterodyne Detection

Optical Homodyne Detection

Self-Coherent Detection and Electronic DSP

Coherent and Incoherent Receiving Techniques

Digital Processing in Advanced Optical Communication Systems

Digital Signal Processing associated with Coherent Optical Receiver

Overview DSP-Assisted Coherent Reception

Polarization Multiplexed Coherent Reception: Analog Section

DSP-Based Phase Estimation and Correction of Phase Noise and Nonlinear Effects

DSP-Based Forward Phase Estimation of Optical Coherent Receivers of QPSK Modulation Format

Coherent Receiver Analysis

Shot-Noise-Limited Receiver Sensitivity




EDF Amplifiers and Simulink® Models

Introductory Remarks

Fundamental and Theoretical Issues of EDFAs

EDFA Configuration

EDFA Operational Principles

Pump Wavelength and Absorption Spectrum

EDFAs in Long-Haul Transmission Systems

EDFA Simulation Model

Amplifier Parameters

EDFAs Dynamic Model

Amplifier Noises

EDFA Simulation Model

EDFA MATLAB® Simulink® Model

Simulator Design Outline

Simulator Design Process

Simulator Requirement

Simulator Design Assumptions

EDFA Simulator Modeling

Pump Source

Simulink® EDFA Simulator: Execution Procedures

Samples of the Simulink® Simulator

Concluding Remarks


MATLAB® Simulink® Modeling of Raman Amplification and Integration in Fiber Transmission Systems


ROA versus EDFA

Raman Amplification


Raman Amplification Coupled Equations

Raman and Fiber Propagation under Linear and Nonlinear Fiber Dispersions

Propagation Equation

SSMF and DCF as Raman Fibers

Noise Figure


Nonlinear Raman Gain/Scattering Schrödinger Equation

Fiber Nonlinearities


Split-Step Fourier Method

Gaussian Pulses, Eye Diagrams, and Bit Error Rate

Raman Amplification and Gaussian Pulse Propagation

Fiber Profiles

Gaussian Pulse Propagation

Long-Haul Optically Amplified Transmission

Concluding Remarks



Raman Amplification and Split-Step Fourier Method: MATLAB® Program

Initialization *.m File


Digital Optical Modulation Transmission Systems

Advanced Photonic Communications and Challenging Issues


Challenging Issues

Enabling Technologies

Digital Modulation Formats

Incoherent Optical Receivers

Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

Generation Principles

Phasor Representation

Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)


Optical DPSK Transmitter

Incoherent Detection of Optical DPSK

Minimum Shift Keying

CPFSK Approach

ODQPSK Approach

Incoherent Detection of Optical MSK

Dual-Level MSK

Theoretical Background

Proposed Generation Scheme

Incoherent Detection of Optical Dual-Level MSK

Spectral Characteristics of Advanced Modulation Formats



Design of Optical Communications Systems



Structure of DWDM Long-Haul Transmission Systems

Long-Haul Optical Transmission Systems

Intensity Modulation Direct Detection Systems

Loss-Limited Optical Communications Systems

Dispersion-Limited Optical Communications Systems

System Preliminary Design

Gaussian Approximation

System Preliminary Design under Nonlinear Effects

Some Notes on the Design of Optical Transmission Systems

Link Budget Calculations under Linear and Nonlinear Impairments

Engineering an OADM Transmission Link

Appendix: Power Budget

Power Budget Estimation: An Example

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Optical SNR

TIA: Differential and Nondifferential Types



Self-Coherent Optically Amplified Digital Transmission Systems: Techniques and Simulink® Models

ASK Modulation Formats Transmission Models

Introductory Remarks

Components Revisited for Advanced Optical Communication System

Optical Sources

Optical Modulators

Mach–Zehnder (MZ) Intensity Modulators Revisited

Transmission Loss and Dispersion Revisited

Nonlinear Effects

Signal Propagation Model

Modulation Formats


RZ (or RZ–ASK)

Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)




Simulink® Models

DQPSK Modulation Formats Transmission Models

DQPSK Optical System Components

DQPSK Receiver



PDM-16 QAM Transmission Systems

MSK Transmission Model

Introductory Remarks

Generation of Optical MSK-Modulated Signals

Optical Binary-Amplitude MSK Format

Star-QAM Transmission Systems for 100 Gb/s Capacity


Design of 16-QAM Signal Constellation

Star 16-QAM

Square 16-QAM

Offset-Square 16-QAM

8-DPSK_2-ASK 16-Star QAM

Configuration of 8-DPSK_2-ASK Optical Transmitter

Configuration of 8-DPSK_2-ASK Detection Scheme

Transmission Performance of 100 Gb/s 8-DPSK_2-ASK Scheme

Power Spectrum

Receiver Sensitivity and Dispersion Tolerance

Long-Haul Transmission

Appendix: Simulink® and Simulation Guidelines

MATLAB® Simulink®

Guide for Use of Simulink® Models



Tbps Optical Transmission Systems: Digital Processing-Based Coherent Reception


Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Systems

Carrier Phase Recovery

112G QPSK Coherent Transmission Systems

I–Q Imbalance Estimation Results

Skew Estimation

Fractionally Spaced Equalization of CD and PMD

Linear, Nonlinear Equalization and Back-Propagation Compensation of Linear and Nonlinear Phase Distortion

16 QAM Systems

Tb/s Superchannel Transmission Systems


Nyquist Pulse and Spectra

Superchannel System Requirements

System Structure

Timing Recovery in Nyquist QAM Channel

128 Gb/s 16 QAM Superchannel Transmission

450 Gb/s 32 QAM Nyquist Transmission Systems

Non-DCF 1 and 2 Tb/s Superchannel Transmission Performance

Transmission Platform


Multicarrier Scheme Comparison

Remarks and Challenges


Digital Signal Processing for Optical Transmission Systems


General Algorithms for Optical Communications Systems

Linear Equalization

Nonlinear Equalizer (NLE) or Decision Feedback Equalizers (DFE)

Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection (MLSD) and Viterbi

Nonlinear MLSE

Shared Equalization between Transmitter and Receivers

Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Technique for Phase Estimation



Carrier Phase Estimation


Correction of Phase Noise and Nonlinear Effects

Forward Phase Estimation QPSK Optical Coherent Receivers

Carrier Recovery in Polarization Division Multiplexed Receivers: A Case Study

Systems Performance of MLSE Equalizer-MSK Optical Transmission Systems

MLSE Equalizer for Optical MSK Systems

MLSE Scheme Performance

MIMO Equalization

Generic MIMO Equalization Process

Training-Based MIMO Equalization

Remarks on References


Appendix A: Technical Data of Single-Mode Optical Fibers

Appendix B: RMS Definition and Power Measurement

Appendix C: Power Budget

Appendix D: How to Relate the Rise/Fall Time with the Frequency Response of Network and Power Budget Analyses for Optical Link Design and in Experimental Platforms

Appendix E: Problems on Optical Fiber Communication Systems


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Le Nguyen Binh is a technical director at the European Research Center of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. in Munich, Germany. He is the editor, author, and/or coauthor of numerous books, as well as the editor of CRC Press’ Optics and Photonics series.


"This book describes the principles, practices and modeling of optically amplified fiber communications systems using MATLAB® and Simulink® platforms. This lecture-based book is pleasant and contains careful discussions of a large number of topics dealing with the multifaceted aspects of light-wave optical-fiber communications engineering. Binh does an excellent job of focusing on practical applications and fundamental issues. What sets the book apart from other optical fiber texts is the author’s framing in terms of MATLAB Simulink models. The target audience for Binh’s book includes undergraduate engineering and science students, as well as optical engineers and designers."
—Book Review by Professor Christian Brosseau, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, writing in Optics & Photonics News

"This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results."
—Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada

"…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field."
—Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona

"The book is well written. It describes the fundamentals of fiber optic systems and presents the exact model texts and mathematical formulas which can be used to create practical computing models."
—Associate professor, Dr. Paulius Tervydis, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania