This reference book concentrates on microstructuring surfaces of optical materials with directed fluxes of off-electrode plasma generated by high-voltage gas discharge and developing methods and equipment related to this technique. It covers theoretical and experimental studies on the electrical and physical properties of high-voltage gas discharges used to generate plasma outside an electrode gap. A new class of methods and devices that makes it possible to implement a series of processes for fabricating diffraction microstructures on large format wafers is also discussed.
"The content of the book is systemic and it corresponds with the needs of the audience for which it is intended. Representation, form, logicality and realizability of material submission are highly appreciated, and it appears an indisputable advantage of the book. A wide range of scientists and specialists in diffractive optics, nanophotonics, ion-plasma technologies, gas discharge physics, micro- and nanoelectronics would benefit from the results represented in the book."
— Alexander G. Poleshchuk, Russian Academy of Sciences
Forming Directed Fluxes of Low Temperature Plasma with High Voltage Gas Discharge Outside the Electrode Gap. Overview of Devices Used for Generating Low-Temperature High Voltage Gas-Discharge Plasma. Features of Low-Temperature Off-Electrode Plasma Generated by High Voltage Gas Discharge. Design Changes to the High-Voltage Gas-Discharge Device. New Devices for Generating Directed Fluxes of Low-Temperature Off Electrode Plasma. Multibeam Gas-Discharge Plasma Generator. Chapter Summay. Methods for Quickly Measuring Surface Cleanliness. Overview of Methods for Quickly Measuring Surface Cleanliness. The Method of Frustrated Multiple Internal Reflection Spectroscopy. The Method of Measuring the Volta Potential. Methods for Evaluating Cleaning Efficiency Based. On Wettability of the Substrate Surface. The Tribometric Method. Design Changes to the Tribometer. Operating Regimes and Parameters of the Tribometer. Determining the Evaluation Criterion of a Technologically Clean Surface. Tribometric Effect of the Substrate-Probe on the Structure of the Test Surface. Measuring Surface Cleanliness with the Tribometric Method . A Cleanliness Analyser Based on Analysis Of Drop Behavior. Evaluating the Cleanliness of a Substrate from the Dynamic State Of a Liquid Drop Deposited on Its Surface. Specifications of the Micro- and Nanoroughness Analyser. Design Changes to the Micro- and Nanoroughness Analysis. Chapter Summary. Increasing the Degree of Surface Cleanliness with Low-Temperature off Electrode Plasma. Overview of Methods for Surface Cleaning. Chemical Cleaning. Laser Cleaning. Low-Temperature Plasma Cleaning. Formation Mechanisms of Surface Properties. Molecular Structure Analysis of the Organic Contaminant. Preparing Initial Samples with a Given Degree of Contamination. Analysis of Plasma Particles Impinging on the Surface Being Treated. Mechanism of Surface Cleaning with Directed Fluxes of Low-Temperature Off-Electrode Plasma. Cleaning Mechanisms. Cleaning Model—Primary Expressions. Experimental Investigation into the Relationship between the Degree of Surface Cleanliness and Physical Plasma Parameters. Procedure for Final Surface Cleaning with Off-Electrode Plasma. Chapter Summary. Adhesion in Metal-Dielectric Structures After Surface Bombardment with an Ion-Electron Flux. Adhesion-Enhancing Mechanism. Adhesion Model—Primary Expressions. Experimental Investigation into the Effect of Ion–Electron Bombardment Parameters on Adhesion. Depositing Highly Adhesive Masks. Chapter Summary. Etching the surface Microreliefs of Optical Materials in off electrode plasma. Preparing Samples for an Experiment in Etching the Surface Microreliefs of Optical Materials in Off-Electrode Plasma. Mechanisms of Plasma-Chemical and Ion Chemical Surface Etching. Etching Model—Primary Expressions; the Algorithm. And Software for Calculating the Etch Rate. Experimental Investigation into the Relationship Between. The Etch Rate and Physical Plasma Parameters. Relationship between the Etch Rate and Substrate Temperature. Method for Determining the Temperature of a Surface. At a Site Where a Low-Temperature Plasma Flux Is Incident. On the Surface. Experimental Investigation into the Relationship between. The Etch Rate and Substrate Temperature. Effect of Bulk Modification of Polymers in a Directed Low Temperature Plasma Flux. Etching Quality of Optical Materials Fabricating Microreliefs on the Surfaces of Optical Materials. Through Plasma-Chemical Etching in Off-Electrode Plasma. Fabricating Microreliefs on the Surfaces of Optical Materials Through Ion-Chemical Etching in Off-Electrode Plasma. Chapter Summary. Generating a Catalytic Mask for the Microrelief of an Optical Element when an al-si structure is irradiated by high voltage gas-discharge particles. Entrainment of Silicon Atoms by Vacancies Formed In an Aluminum Melt When Its Surface Is Exposed. To High Voltage Gas Discharge Particles. Analytical Description of Silicon Dissolution in an Aluminum Melt. Conservative Difference Scheme for Diffusion Equations. Difference Solution to the Mixed Problem. Analysis of Numerical Results. Analysis of Experimental Data. Fabricating a Microrelief Based on a Catalytic Mask Formed In Off Electrode Plasma. Chapter Summary.