Optical Methods of Measurement : Wholefield Techniques, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Optical Methods of Measurement
Wholefield Techniques, Second Edition

ISBN 9781574446975
Published June 26, 2009 by CRC Press
316 Pages 128 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques, Second Edition provides a comprehensive collection of wholefield optical measurement techniques for engineering applications. Along with the reorganization of contents, this edition includes a new chapter on optical interference, new material on nondiffracting and singular beams and their applications, and updated bibliography and additional reading sections.

The book explores the propagation of laser beams, metrological applications of phase-singular beams, various detectors such as CCD and CMOS devices, and recording materials. It also covers interference, diffraction, and digital fringe pattern measurement techniques, with special emphasis on phase measurement interferometry and algorithms. The remainder of the book focuses on theory, experimental arrangements, and applications of wholefield techniques. The author discusses digital hologram interferometry, digital speckle photography, digital speckle pattern interferometry, Talbot interferometry, and holophotoelasticity.

This updated book compiles the major wholefield methods of measurement in one volume. It provides a solid understanding of the techniques by describing the physics behind them. In addition, the examples given illustrate how the techniques solve measurement problems.

Table of Contents

Waves and Beams

The Wave Equation

Plane Waves

Spherical Waves

Cylindrical Waves

Waves as Information Carriers

The Laser Beam

The Gaussian Beam

ABCD Matrix Applied to Gaussian Beams

Nondiffracting Beams—Bessel Beams

Singular Beams

Optical Interference


Generation of Coherent Waves

Interference between Two Plane Monochromatic Waves

Multiple-Beam Interference



Fresnel Diffraction

Fraunhofer Diffraction

Action of a Lens

Image Formation and Fourier Transformation by a Lens

Optical Filtering

Optical Components in Optical Metrology

Resolving Power of Optical Systems

Phase-Evaluation Methods

Interference Equation

Fringe Skeletonization

Temporal Heterodyning

Phase-Sampling Evaluation: Quasi-Heterodyning

Phase-Shifting Method

Phase-Shifting with Unknown but Constant Phase-Step

Spatial Phase-Shifting

Methods of Phase-Shifting

Fourier Transform Method

Spatial Heterodyning

Detectors and Recording Materials

Detector Characteristics


Image Detectors

Recording Materials

Holographic Interferometry


Hologram Recording


Choice of Angle of Reference Wave

Choice of Reference Wave Intensity

Types of Holograms

Diffraction Efficiency

Experimental Arrangement

Holographic Recording Materials

Holographic Interferometry (HI)

Fringe Formation and Measurement of Displacement Vector

Loading of the Object

Measurement of Very Small Vibration Amplitudes

Measurement of Large Vibration Amplitudes

Stroboscopic Illumination/Stroboscopic HI

Special Techniques in HI

Extending the Sensitivity of HI

Holographic Contouring/Shape Measurement

Holographic Photo-Elasticity

Digital Holography

Digital HI

Speckle Metrology

The Speckle Phenomenon

Average Speckle Size

Superposition of Speckle Patterns

Speckle Pattern and Object Surface Characteristics

Speckle Pattern and Surface Motion

Speckle Photography

Methods of Evaluation

Speckle Photography with Vibrating Objects: In-Plane Vibration

Sensitivity of Speckle Photography

Particle Image Velocimetry

White-Light Speckle Photography

Shear Speckle Photography

Speckle Interferometry

Correlation Coefficient in Speckle Interferometry

Out-of-Plane Speckle Interferometer

In-Plane Measurement: Duffy’s Method

Filtering Arrangements for Extracting Information from Specklegram

Out-of-Plane Displacement Measurement

Simultaneous Measurement of Out-of-Plane and In-Plane Displacement Components

Other Possibilities for Aperturing the Lens

Duffy’s Arrangement: Enhanced Sensitivity

Speckle Interferometry—Shape Measurement/Contouring

Speckle Shear Interferometry

Methods of Shearing

Theory of Speckle Shear Interferometry

Fringe Formation

Shear Interferometry without Influence of the In-Plane Component

Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

Contouring in ESPI

Special Techniques

Spatial Phase-Shifting


Superposition of Two-Plane Polarized Waves

Linear Polarization

Circular Polarization

Production of Polarized Light

Malus’s Law

The Stress–Optic Law

The Strain–Optic Law

Methods of Analysis

Evaluation Procedure

Measurement of Fractional Fringe Order


Birefringent Coating Method: Reflection Polariscope


Three-Dimensional Photo-Elasticity

Examination of the Stressed Model in Scattered Light

The Moiré Phenomenon


The Moiré Fringe Pattern between Two Linear Gratings

The Moiré Fringe Pattern between a Linear Grating and a Circular Grating

Moiré between Sinusoidal Gratings

Moiré between Reference and Deformed Gratings

Moiré Pattern with Deformed Sinusoidal Grating

Contrast Improvement of the Additive Moiré Pattern

Moiré Phenomenon for Measurement

Measurement of In-Plane Displacement

Measurement of Out-of-Plane Component and Contouring

Slope Determination for Dynamic Events

Curvature Determination for Dynamic Events

Surface Topography with Reflection Moiré Method

Talbot Phenomenon


Bibliography and Additional Reading appear at the end of each chapter.

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Rajpal S. Sirohi is currently the vice chancellor of Amity University. Prior to this, he was the vice chancellor of Barkatullah University and director of the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. The recipient of many international awards and author of more than 400 papers, Dr. Sirohi is involved with research concerning optical metrology, optical instrumentation, holography, and speckle phenomenon.