2nd Edition

Optical Methods of Measurement Wholefield Techniques, Second Edition

By Rajpal Sirohi Copyright 2009
    316 Pages 128 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    316 Pages 128 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Optical Methods of Measurement: Wholefield Techniques, Second Edition provides a comprehensive collection of wholefield optical measurement techniques for engineering applications. Along with the reorganization of contents, this edition includes a new chapter on optical interference, new material on nondiffracting and singular beams and their applications, and updated bibliography and additional reading sections.

    The book explores the propagation of laser beams, metrological applications of phase-singular beams, various detectors such as CCD and CMOS devices, and recording materials. It also covers interference, diffraction, and digital fringe pattern measurement techniques, with special emphasis on phase measurement interferometry and algorithms. The remainder of the book focuses on theory, experimental arrangements, and applications of wholefield techniques. The author discusses digital hologram interferometry, digital speckle photography, digital speckle pattern interferometry, Talbot interferometry, and holophotoelasticity.

    This updated book compiles the major wholefield methods of measurement in one volume. It provides a solid understanding of the techniques by describing the physics behind them. In addition, the examples given illustrate how the techniques solve measurement problems.

    Waves and Beams

    The Wave Equation

    Plane Waves

    Spherical Waves

    Cylindrical Waves

    Waves as Information Carriers

    The Laser Beam

    The Gaussian Beam

    ABCD Matrix Applied to Gaussian Beams

    Nondiffracting Beams—Bessel Beams

    Singular Beams

    Optical Interference


    Generation of Coherent Waves

    Interference between Two Plane Monochromatic Waves

    Multiple-Beam Interference



    Fresnel Diffraction

    Fraunhofer Diffraction

    Action of a Lens

    Image Formation and Fourier Transformation by a Lens

    Optical Filtering

    Optical Components in Optical Metrology

    Resolving Power of Optical Systems

    Phase-Evaluation Methods

    Interference Equation

    Fringe Skeletonization

    Temporal Heterodyning

    Phase-Sampling Evaluation: Quasi-Heterodyning

    Phase-Shifting Method

    Phase-Shifting with Unknown but Constant Phase-Step

    Spatial Phase-Shifting

    Methods of Phase-Shifting

    Fourier Transform Method

    Spatial Heterodyning

    Detectors and Recording Materials

    Detector Characteristics


    Image Detectors

    Recording Materials

    Holographic Interferometry


    Hologram Recording


    Choice of Angle of Reference Wave

    Choice of Reference Wave Intensity

    Types of Holograms

    Diffraction Efficiency

    Experimental Arrangement

    Holographic Recording Materials

    Holographic Interferometry (HI)

    Fringe Formation and Measurement of Displacement Vector

    Loading of the Object

    Measurement of Very Small Vibration Amplitudes

    Measurement of Large Vibration Amplitudes

    Stroboscopic Illumination/Stroboscopic HI

    Special Techniques in HI

    Extending the Sensitivity of HI

    Holographic Contouring/Shape Measurement

    Holographic Photo-Elasticity

    Digital Holography

    Digital HI

    Speckle Metrology

    The Speckle Phenomenon

    Average Speckle Size

    Superposition of Speckle Patterns

    Speckle Pattern and Object Surface Characteristics

    Speckle Pattern and Surface Motion

    Speckle Photography

    Methods of Evaluation

    Speckle Photography with Vibrating Objects: In-Plane Vibration

    Sensitivity of Speckle Photography

    Particle Image Velocimetry

    White-Light Speckle Photography

    Shear Speckle Photography

    Speckle Interferometry

    Correlation Coefficient in Speckle Interferometry

    Out-of-Plane Speckle Interferometer

    In-Plane Measurement: Duffy’s Method

    Filtering Arrangements for Extracting Information from Specklegram

    Out-of-Plane Displacement Measurement

    Simultaneous Measurement of Out-of-Plane and In-Plane Displacement Components

    Other Possibilities for Aperturing the Lens

    Duffy’s Arrangement: Enhanced Sensitivity

    Speckle Interferometry—Shape Measurement/Contouring

    Speckle Shear Interferometry

    Methods of Shearing

    Theory of Speckle Shear Interferometry

    Fringe Formation

    Shear Interferometry without Influence of the In-Plane Component

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Contouring in ESPI

    Special Techniques

    Spatial Phase-Shifting


    Superposition of Two-Plane Polarized Waves

    Linear Polarization

    Circular Polarization

    Production of Polarized Light

    Malus’s Law

    The Stress–Optic Law

    The Strain–Optic Law

    Methods of Analysis

    Evaluation Procedure

    Measurement of Fractional Fringe Order


    Birefringent Coating Method: Reflection Polariscope


    Three-Dimensional Photo-Elasticity

    Examination of the Stressed Model in Scattered Light

    The Moiré Phenomenon


    The Moiré Fringe Pattern between Two Linear Gratings

    The Moiré Fringe Pattern between a Linear Grating and a Circular Grating

    Moiré between Sinusoidal Gratings

    Moiré between Reference and Deformed Gratings

    Moiré Pattern with Deformed Sinusoidal Grating

    Contrast Improvement of the Additive Moiré Pattern

    Moiré Phenomenon for Measurement

    Measurement of In-Plane Displacement

    Measurement of Out-of-Plane Component and Contouring

    Slope Determination for Dynamic Events

    Curvature Determination for Dynamic Events

    Surface Topography with Reflection Moiré Method

    Talbot Phenomenon


    Bibliography and Additional Reading appear at the end of each chapter.


    Rajpal S. Sirohi is currently the vice chancellor of Amity University. Prior to this, he was the vice chancellor of Barkatullah University and director of the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. The recipient of many international awards and author of more than 400 papers, Dr. Sirohi is involved with research concerning optical metrology, optical instrumentation, holography, and speckle phenomenon.