Optical Wireless Communications: IR for Wireless Connectivity, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Optical Wireless Communications

IR for Wireless Connectivity, 1st Edition

By Roberto Ramirez-Iniguez, Sevia M. Idrus, Ziran Sun

Auerbach Publications

376 pages | 144 B/W Illus.

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Description

Over the last three decades, interest in Infrared (IR) technology as a medium to convey information has grown considerably. This is reflected by the increasing number of devices such as laptops, PDAs, and mobile phones that incorporate optical wireless transceivers and also by the increasing number of optical wireless links available for indoor and outdoor use. The popularity of IR is based on the advantages it has over radio including unregulated bandwidth, immunity to radio interference, and inherent security.

Optical Wireless Communications examines some of the most important features of optical wireless communication systems. It considers the benefits and limitations of IR as a medium conveying information wirelessly and compares the advantages and disadvantages of infrared to microwave and other radio systems. It also details the evolution of IR communication systems and describes atmospheric and other types of data transmission limitations.

The book presents design fundamentals of optical concentrators, as well as a review of some of the most important receiver optical front-ends (containing imaging or non-imaging concentrators and optical filters), including an explanation of the different sources of infrared noise and an introduction to eye safety. It also describes optical wireless transmitter and receiver design issues, typical modulation, coding, and multiple access techniques, and introduces IrDA protocols and wireless IR networking.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Technology Overview

System Configurations

Evolution of Infrared Communication Systems

The Optical Wireless Channel

Design Fundamentals

Power Budget Considerations

Summary and Conclusions

ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMISSION LIMITATIONS

Introduction to Atmospheric Propagation

Important Definitions

Atmospheric Transmission

Effect of Rain, Fog, and Mist

Scintillation

Summary and Conclusions

DATA TRANSMISSION LIMITATIONS AND EYE SAFETY

Data Transmission Limitations

Eye Safety

Extended vs. Collimated Sources

Holographic Diffusers

LEDs vs. LDs

Special Considerations for Outdoor Systems

Summary and Conclusions

FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICAL CONCENTRATION

Overview of Optical Concentration

Geometrical Optics and Ray Tracing

Optical Path Length and Fermat's Principle

The Etendue or Lagrange Invariant

The Edge Ray Principle

Concentration Ratio

Summary and Conclusions

OPTICAL CONCENTRATORS

Overview of Optical Concentrators

Wireless IR Receiver Requirements

Optical Filters

Optical Concentrators

DTIRC Characteristics

Comparison of Concentrators

Practical Issues

Other Shapes of DTIRCs

Summary and Conclusions

OPTICAL WIRELESS TRANSMITTER DESIGN

Introduction to Optical Wireless Transmitter Design

Transmitter Design Considerations

Optical Source Characteristics

Types of Optical Modulation

Driver Circuit Design Concepts

Current Steering Output Circuit

Back Termination Circuit

Predriver

Data Retiming

Automatic Power Control

Transmitters Linearization Techniques

OPTICAL WIRELESS RECEIVER DESIGN

Receiver Design Considerations

Photodetection in Reverse-biased Diodes

Choosing the Photodetector

Receiver Noise Consideration

Bit Error Rate and Sensitivity

Bandwidth

Signal Amplification Techniques

Receiver Main Amplifier (RMA)

Transceiver Circuit Implementation Technologies: Hybrid and Monolithic Integration

Summary and Conclusions

MODULATION, CODING, AND MULTIPLE ACCESS

Introduction to Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques

Modulation

Modulation Techniques Comparison

Modulation Schemes in The Presence of Noise

Modulation Schemes in the Presence of Multipath Distortion

Multiple Access Techniques

Summary and Conclusions

IrDA PROTOCOLS

Wireless Protocol Standards

The Infrared Data Association

IrDA Standard Overview

The Physical Layer Protocol

Framer/Driver

IrLAP

IrLMP

Information Access Service and Protocol

Tiny Transport Protocol

Session and Application Layer Protocols

Summary and Conclusions

WIRELESS IR NETWORKING

Introduction to Wireless IR Networking

Network Architecture

Optical Wireless Network Specifications

The Ad Hoc Network

Quality of Service (QoS)

Future Infrared Networking

REFERENCES

About the Authors

Dr. Roberto Ramirez-Iniguez received a B.Eng. degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in 1996, and an M.Sc. in Communications and Real-Time Electronic Systems from the University of Bradford in 1998. After obtaining his first degree, he worked for a short period of time for Tektronix Mexico in the area of Tools and Business Units. In 1998, he started postgraduate studies at the University of Warwick, from which he received his Ph.D. in 2002. Shortly afterwards, he began working as a researcher for Optical Antenna Solutions within the Communications and Signal Processing group in the Photonics and Communications Laboratory of Warwick University. He currently is a lecturer in Communications and Embedded Systems at Glasgow Caledonian University., His areas of interest include optical wireless communications, optical antennae design, and research on directive elements for wireless IR transmitters and receivers., Dr. Sevia M. Idrus is Deputy Director of the Photonics Technology Centre in the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. She received a B.Eng. and a Masters degree in Electrical Engineering both from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. She obtained a Ph.D. in Optical Communication Systems from the University of Warwick in 2004. She has worked at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia since 1998, both as academic and administrative staff. Her main areas of research include the characterization, modeling, and design of opto-electronic devices, radio-over-fiber systems, optical transceiver design, and optical wireless communication technology., Dr. Ziran Sun received a B.Eng. degree in Automation Control in 1995 and an M.Sc. in Communication and Electronics in 1998 in China. In 1999, she was awarded an ORS scholarship from the British Government and a Studentship from the University of Warwick for doctoral studies. She was awarded a Ph.D. by the University of Warwick in 2005. In 2002, she worked as a Researcher in the University of Bradford and later moved to the University of Cambridge (in 2004). She joined the telecommunications industry in 2005, where she currently works as a software engineer. Her areas of interest include optical wireless communications, communications protocol design for mobile hosts, and wireless networks.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM032000
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC041000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TEC061000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications