Optimal Control of Greenhouse Cultivation: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Optimal Control of Greenhouse Cultivation

1st Edition

By Gerrit van Straten, Gerard van Willigenburg, Eldert van Henten, Rachel van Ooteghem

CRC Press

326 pages | 87 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-11-08
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Greenhouse control system manufacturers produce equipment and software with hundreds of settings and, while they hold training courses on how to adjust these settings, there is as yet no integrated instruction on when or why. Despite rapid growth in the greenhouse industry, growers are still faced with a multitude of variables and no unifying framework from which to choose the best option.

Consolidating 30 years of research in greenhouse climate control, Optimal Control of Greenhouse Cultivation utilizes mathmatical models to incorporate the wealth of scientific knowledge into a feasible optimal control methodology for greenhouse crop cultivation. Discussing several different paradigms on greenhouse climate control, it integrates the current research into physical modeling of the greenhouse climate in response to heating, ventilation, and other control variables with the biological modeling of variables such as plant evapo-transpiration and growth.

Key topics include state-space greenhouse and crop modeling needed for the design of integrated optimal controllers that exploit rather than mitigate outside weather conditions, especially sunlight, given widely different time scales. The book reviews classical rule-based and multivariable feedback controllers in comparison with the optimal hierarchical control paradigm. It considers real and hypothetical examples including lettuce, tomato, and solar greenhouses and examines experimental results of greenhouse climate control using optimal control software. The book concludes with a discussion of open issues as well as future perspectives and challenges.

Providing a tool to automatically determine the most economical controls and settings for their operation, this much-needed book relieves growers of unnecessary control tasks, and allows them to achieve the best possible trade-off between short term savings and optimal harvest yield.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Problem Statement

Greenhouse-Crop Cultivation—Benefits and Challenges

Automatic Control

Elementary Description of the Greenhouse-Crop System

Measurements and Instrumentation

Decomposition, Fluxes, and Information Flows

General State–Space Representation

Hierarchical Computerized Control

Current Status of Computerized Control

How Is This Book Organized?.


Introduction to Optimal Control of Greenhouse Climate

Introduction and Motivation

A Simple Illustrative Example

General Formulation of Optimal Control Problems

Benefits and Difficulties Associated with Optimal Control

Open-Loop Optimal Control


Optimal Control Theory

Optimal Control Algorithms


Closed-Loop Optimal Control


State Estimation

Linear Quadratic Feedback Control


Greenhouse Cultivation Control Paradigms


Optimal Control Revisited

Earlier Surveys of Greenhouse Climate Control Solutions

Classification of Proposed Greenhouse Climate Control Solutions

Discussion and Conclusion


A Seminal Case: Lettuce



The Optimal Control Problem

Optimal Control Case Studies

Concluding Remarks


An Experimental Application: Tomato.


Tomato Model

Greenhouse Climate Model

State–Space Form of the Complete Greenhouse-Crop Model

Calibration and Model Results

Open-Loop Optimization

Two–Time-Scale Receding Horizon Controller (RHOC)

Evaluation of Optimal Control

Assessment of Economic Result as Compared with Conventional Control

Discussion and Conclusions


An Advanced Application: The Solar Greenhouse.


Description of the Solar Greenhouse Concept

System Description

The Solar Greenhouse Model

Model of Crop Biophysics

Sensitivity Analysis, Calibration, and Validation

Optimal Control



Developments, Open Issues, and Perspectives


Developments in the Greenhouse Industry and Consequences for Control

Prerequisites for Future Control Systems

Challenges for Science and Technology

Showstoppers for Optimal Control

Conclusions and Perspectives


About the Originator

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General