These articles describe ideas about contextual performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and similar patterns of behavior that have been developed by scholars working from very different research traditions. It seems that the different research traditions are converging on the same notion--that besides formal job requirements, other patterns of behavior are also critical for organizational effectiveness and survival. These other patterns of behavior have been relatively ignored until recently, but now scholars are trying to define them, determine exactly why and how they are important for organizations, and identify their antecedents. The results of these research efforts-- described by articles in this issue--will help to make it possible to develop new conceptual and practical tools for managing these important behaviors and in that way promote human performance and organizational effectiveness.
Contents: W.C. Borman, S.J. Motowidlo, Introduction: Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Contextual Performance. S.J. Motowidlo, W.C. Borman, M.J. Schmit, A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual Performance. D.W. Organ, Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It's Construct Clean-Up Time. W.C. Borman, S.J. Motowidlo, Task Performance and Contextual Performance: The Meaning for Personnel Selection Research. L.A. Penner, A.R. Midili, J. Kegelmeyer, Beyond Job Attitudes: A Personality and Social Psychology Perspective on the Causes of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. P.M. Podsakoff, S.B. MacKenzie, The Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research. J.M. George, G.R. Jones, Organizational Spontaneity in Context. C. Speier, M. Frese, Generalized Self-Efficacy as a Mediator and Moderator Between Control and Complexity at Work and Personal Initiative: A Longitudinal Field Study in East Germany.