Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College Creating Pathways to Success for Minority and Impoverished Student Populations
Overall, nearly half of all incoming community college students “drop-out” within twelve months of enrolling, with students of color and the economically disadvantaged faring far worse. Given the high proportion of underserved students these colleges enroll, the detrimental impact on their communities, and for the national economy as a whole at a time of diversifying demographics, is enormous.This book addresses this urgent issue by bringing together nationally recognized researchers whose work throws light on the structural and systemic causes of student attrition, as well as college presidents and leaders who have successfully implemented strategies to improve student outcomes.The book is divided into five sections, each devoted to a demographic group: African Americans, Native Americans/American Indians, Latino Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Caucasian students in poverty. Each section in turn comprises three chapters, the first providing an up-to-date summary of research findings about barriers and attainments pertaining to the corresponding population, the second the views of a community college president, and the final chapter offering a range of models and best practices for achieving student success.The analyses--descriptions of cutting edge programs--and recommendations for action will commend this volume to everyone concerned about equity and completion rates in the community college sector, from presidents and senior administrators through faculty and student affairs leaders. For educational researchers, it fills blanks on data about attrition and persistence patterns of minority students attending community colleges.ContributorsKenneth AtwaterGlennda M. BivensEdward BushCara CrowleyMaria Harper-MarinickJoan B. HolmesG. Edward HughesLee LambertCynthia Lindquist, Ta’Sunka Wicahpi Win (Star Horse Woman)Angela LongRussell Lowery-HartJamillah MooreChristopher M. MullinBrian MurphyEduardo J. PadrónDeborah A. SantiagoWei SongRobert TeranishiRowena M. TomanengJames UtterbackJ. Luke Wood
Foreword Preface Introduction Part One. African American/Black Student Populations 1. Voice of the National Researcher. African American Student Populations in Community Colleges—Glennda M. Bivens and J. Luke Wood 2. Voice of the National Leaders. Retaining African American Students in the Community College—Jamillah Moore and Edward Bush 3. Cutting-Edge Models for Best Practice. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, Florida—Kenneth Atwater and Joan B. Holmes Part Two. Hispanic/Latino Student Populations 4. Voice of the National Researcher. Community College Data Trends for Latino Student Populations—Deborah A. Santiago 5. Voice of the National Leader. Equal Opportunity For All Students. Are We There Yet?—Maria Harper-Marinick 6. Cutting-Edge Models for Best Practice. “I Do Belong”. Cultivating Hispanic and Low-Income Student Success—Eduardo J. Padrón Part Three. Native American/American Indian Student Populations 7. Voice of the National Researcher. National Data Trends on Native American/American Indian Student Retention at Community Colleges—Wei Song 8. Voice of the National Leader. American Indian Voice. A National Perspective—Cynthia Lindquist, Ta’Sunka Wicahpi Win (Star Horse Woman. 9. Cutting-Edge Models for Best Practice. The Intersection of Education and Culture. Utilizing Symbols, Relationships, and Traditions to Improve Enrollment Management of American Indian Students—James Utterback Part Four. Asian American and Pacific Islander Student Populations 10. Voice of the National Researcher. Asian American and Pacific Islanders in the Community College—Robert Teranishi 11. Voice of the National Leader. Where Are All the Asian American Auto Mechanics? Thoughts on Diversity, Globalism, and Middle-Skill Jobs—Lee Lambert 12. Cutting-Edge Models for Best Practice. Negotiating Multiple Identities. De Anza College’s IMPACT AAPI Program—Brian Murphy and Rowena Tomaneng Part Five. Caucasian Students in Poverty 13. Voice of the National Researcher. Invisible Poverty. Caucasian Student Poverty and the College Experience—Christopher M. Mullin 14. Voice of the National Leader. The Role of Community Colleges in Helping People Move From Poverty to Prosperity—G. Edward Hughes 15. Cutting-Edge Models for Best Practice. Caucasian Student Populations in Poverty. Voices of Reluctant Advocates—Russell Lowery-Hart and Cara Crowley Part Six. Conclusions and Recommendations 16. Redesigning Students’ Educational Experiences—Angela Long Appendix A. Six Fundamental Factors for Improving Student Retention About the Contributors Index
“Substantiating the call for understanding student experiences in the community college milieu, Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College compiles research, narratives, and promising practices for reimagining institutional culture as a means for helping historically marginalized students in higher education persist and complete community college. This timely text is organized into six parts; five of which are devoted to unearthing the social, emotional, and cultural conditions that characterize community college experiences for Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American/American Indian, and Asian American/Pacific Islander students, as well as Caucasian students living in poverty. The sixth part of Long’s text proposes recommendations for redesigning the educational experiences of these specific populations.
The aim of this work, as expressed in Long’s introduction, is to answer the difficult question: are minority students at community colleges disadvantaged by educational racism? This book is unique in that the first five parts are subdivided in three ways, capturing the voice of a national researcher, the voice of a national leader, and cutting edge models for best practice for each racial/ethnic group. This thoughtful arrangement is powerful, namely because it constructs a conversational narrative between each author: all of whom serve in various capacities as college administrators, student affairs professionals, and educational researchers.
Taken as a whole, this book makes a valuable contribution to the literature and can act as an important resource for institutional leaders looking to understand and improve the experiences of community colleges’ most vulnerable populations. The 20 contributing authors of Overcoming Educational Racism should applaud themselves for this timely work, as it can help institutional leaders eliminate structural inequities that impede minoritized student success in our nation’s community colleges.”
Teachers College Record
"Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College shows us the complex challenges and ripe opportunities we face in ensuring that all students, especially underserved, underrepresented and minority students, across this nation achieve a postsecondary education. Community colleges are often a critical gateway to success for these students who must compete in today’s global economy. At Helios Education Foundation, we believe that every student, regardless of zip code, deserves a high quality education, and that belief is central to everything we do. I challenge all of us, as leaders in education, to work collaboratively, remove the barriers and build and reform our education systems with a focus on equity and postsecondary education success for all."
Paul J. Luna, President and CEO
Helios Education Foundation
“Persistent equity gaps threaten the future of our society, and there is only one institution in America that has the potential to close them. Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College draws upon the perspectives of our best researchers and leaders to remind us of the urgency of the problems and to identify promising practices that can make a difference.”
Dr. George Boggs, President & CEO Emeritus
American Association of Community Colleges
“Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College is a vital resource for all Native American educators entrusted with the crucial task of improving minority retention rates at our community colleges.”
Governor Bill Anoatubby, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma
"I am deeply moved and impressed with the depth of knowledge provided on African American, Asian American/Pacific Islanders, Native Americans/American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and Caucasian American students and the effects of poverty on their educational journey and success. I will be recommending Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College as part of our reading materials for our current leadership development institute for faculty and staff."
Ervin V. Griffin, Sr., President/CEO
Halifax Community College, North Carolina (2016 AACC Advancing Diversity Award Winner)
"America’s community colleges are well positioned to act, with urgency, to address the issues of racism that are inhibiting the academic progress and success of far too many students. Overcoming Educational Racism in the Community College uses evidence to point the way toward changes colleges can make – and must make – to end the structural inequities that keep students of color from completing their educational journeys ready to achieve their full potential. Dr. Long’s essential book shows colleges how to plan with equity in mind and act with equity in mind."
Dr. Karen Stout, President
Achieving the Dream
"What an incredible collection of research, best practices and leaders on the most important topic of our nation - how to address inequity caused by educational racism. Community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide the opportunity for consciousness and job skills for those most underserved. As was the aim of the Obama administration, improving the graduation rates from community colleges – where the majority of first generation, African American, Latino, Native American and working class students attend – is the only way to educate our Nation and be, once again, the most educated country."
Jose A. Rico, Former Executive Director
White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics
“Community colleges are one of the great economic engines of America and this groundbreaking new book by Dr. Long highlights the importance of community colleges as they operate with rapidly changing demographics, funding headwinds and requirements for increased social impact. Educational equity requires inclusion for all Americans and this textbook traverses all the racial and ethnic mosaic of what makes America great including a rational portrayal of the Asian and Pacific Islanders American diaspora and the AANAPISI campuses who support them.”
Neil Horikoshi, President and Executive Director
Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund