How do we identify and measure human disease in the past? In the absence of soft tissue, paleoepidemiologists have developed ingenious ways of assessing illness and mortality in archaeological populations. In this volume, the key methods of epidemiology are outlined for non-specialists, showing the importance of studying prevalence over incidence, adjustments needed in studying past groups, how to compare studies, and the dangers of assessing occupation based upon bone evidence. A model for planning a proper paleoepidemiological study concludes the volume. Both as an introduction to epidemiology for archaeologists, and as a primer on archaeological analysis for epidemiologists, this book should serve the needs of both populations.