This volume documents the Proceedings of the 5th and 6th Symposia on Particles on Surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal, held under the aegis of the Fine Particle Society in Chicago (May 6--9, 1996) and Dallas (April 1--3, 1998), respectively. The technical programs clearly reflected an interest and need to ameliorate the existing methods and to devise new and more efficient ways to detect, analyze and characterize particles on surfaces. The removal of particles from a host of surfaces was especially highlighted; the need to remove smaller and smaller particles was particularly underscored. All manuscripts included in this volume were properly peer reviewed and all were revised before inclusion in this volume. Thus, this book is not a mere collection of unreviewed papers, but represents information that has passed peer scrutiny. Furthermore, the authors of the 5th Symposium were asked to update the information. So, the information presented in this book should be as fresh and up-to-date as possible. This volume is divided into two parts: Part 1. General Papers and Part 2. Particle Adhesion and Removal. The topics covered include: high-sensitivity rapid detection of particles; detection of particles using evanescent wave scattering; particles on the backside of wafers; particle shedding from fluid-handling components; dynamics of particle adhesion; particle dispersion/aggregation; precision cleaning; and particle removal by surfactants, supercritical fluids, hydrodynamic forces, high-speed droplet impinging, megasonic, CO2 blasting, CO2 snow, argon aerosol, lasers, microcluster beams, brush and chemical-mechanical methods. This volume offers bountiful information and represent a current commentary on the R&D activity taking place in the area of particles on surfaces, particularly particle removal from a variety of surfaces.
Preface PART 1. GENERAL PAPERS High sensitivity rapid detection of particulate contamination M. Vaez-Iravani and S. Stokowski Detection of particles on surfaces using evanescent wave scattering L. Suresh, J. Y. Walz and E. D. Hirleman Metallic contamination from particles on the backside of wafers M. Simard-Normandin, F. Beaudoin and M. Meunier The effect of fluid dynamics on particle shedding from semiconductor fluid-handling components W. Kelly, D. C. Grant, G. Van Schooneveld, D. Carrieri, D. Smith, A. Rodemeyer and D. Henderson Influence of surface charge on particle dispersion/aggregation as determined by atomic force microscopy S. Veeramasuneni and J. D. Miller Synthesis of composite particles by a dry coating technique A. Ata and R. K. Singh PART 2. PARTICLE ADHESION AND REMOVAL Particles, surfaces and turbulent fluid flow: the dynamics of adhesion N. Vatistas The role of cetyl pyridinium chloride in reducing adhesion forces between alumina particles and quartz surfaces M. L. Free and D. O. Shah The effect of various surfactants on adhesion of fine particles to polycarbonate lenses and on the scratches produced during wiping process H. Fang and D. O. Shah Precision cleaning and processing in industrial applications R. Kohli Co-solvents in supercritical fluids for enhanced effectiveness in particle removal R. Kohli Hydrodynamic removal of fine particles from solid surfaces S. K. Das and M. M. Sharma Study of high-speed droplet impingement on solid surfaces N. Hirano, K. Takayama, J. Falcovitz and K. Kitagawa Measurements and modelling of megasonic cleaning processes R. Gouk, D. B. Kittelson, T. H. Kuehn and Y. Wu Co2 (dry-ice) particle blasting as a mainstream cleaning alternative D. R. Linger Carbon dioxide snow cleaning R. Sherman Argon aerosol surface cleaning: an overview W. McDermott and P. Sferlazzo Development and optimization of a cryogenic aerosol-based wafer cleaning system N. Narayanswami, J. Heitzinger, J. Patrin, D. Rader, T. O'Hern and J. Torczynski Radiance process evaluation for particle removal R. N. Legge, D. J. Convey, J. D. Peterson, C. M. Freeman, D. L. Thompson, T. R. O'Keeffe, A. C. Engelsberg, A. F. Cruz, M. E. King and P. M. Randall Chemically assisted laser removal of photoresist and particles from semiconductor wafers M. Genut, Y. Uziel, O. Tehar-Zahav, I. Barzilay and B. Livshits Removal of particulate contamination from silicon surfaces with laser-based cleaning technology S. Boughaba, J. B. HÃ©roux, M. Curcio, E. Sacher and M. Meunier Removal of particulate and film contaminants by impacting surfaces with microcluster beams J. F. Mahoney, J. Perel, C. Sujo and J. Andersen Post-CMP particle removal using a Capella brush cleaner A. Jha, M. Sauer, C. Gensler, A. Blazev, S. Basak, S. Zhu, D. Wagner and A. Gupta Particle removal from semiconductor surfaces by chemical-mechanical cleaning: setting the record straight I. J. Malik and W. C. Krusell