Patient Handling in the Healthcare Sector: A Guide for Risk Management with MAPO Methodology (Movement and Assistance of Hospital Patients), 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Patient Handling in the Healthcare Sector

A Guide for Risk Management with MAPO Methodology (Movement and Assistance of Hospital Patients), 1st Edition

By Olga Menoni, Natale Battevi, Silvia Cairoli

CRC Press

223 pages | 78 B/W Illus.

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Hospital staff and caregivers are regularly exposed to biomechanical overload risk, particularly at spine and shoulder level—a risk factor that will continue to rise with the progressive aging of the population. Patient Handling in the Healthcare Sector: A Guide for Risk Management with MAPO Methodology (Movement and Assistance of Hospital Patients) details the analysis of patient handling risk using the MAPO method in different areas of healthcare and helps you develop strategies to mitigate them.

Focusing on the organization of work, this approach gives you the tools to:

  • Rapidly analyse the problem
  • Rapidly identify solutions
  • Effectively monitor the results of preventive actions

One of the special features of this approach is that it employs tools that allow you to allocate financial resources to estimate what investments are needed to achieve specific results. This means taking the decision-making process out of the hands of ergonomics experts and putting it into those of healthcare facility administrators.


"… provides an extensive and comprehensive description of the evidence-based MAPO INDEX that will allow not only trained ergonomists and biomechanists the ability to conduct a thorough patient handling risk assessment but many and varied healthcare professionals as well. … the level of detail found in the text facilitates intervention implementation and maintenance successes."

—Mary W. Matz MSPH, CPE, CSPHP, Patient Care Ergonomic Solutions, LLC

"The main strength of this book is its comprehensiveness in addressing the important problem of injuries suffered by health care workers due to manual patient handling. … much more than a list of recommendations for safe patient handling but instead presents a system that any health care facility or institution can use to systematically assess their facilities and practices for patient handling and design improved systems for such activity."

—Robert R. Fox Ph.D., CPE, Chair, US TAG to ISO TC159/SC3 Anthropometry and Biomechanics

"… excellent, crisply written … practical and accessible … This is a really useful, meticulously detailed handbook for all those involved in the manual handling of people, with the overall purpose of reducing the number of MSDs among careers."

— The RoSPA Occupational Safety & Health Journal, January 2015

"I found it easy to use, comprehensive, consistent and solution-focused and in my view its application deserves the attention of policymakers."

Occupational Medicine, June 2016

Table of Contents

Introduction: A Brief History of the MAPO Index Equation and Relationship with a Specific Preventive Plan

A Review of Work-Related MSDs in Caregivers



A Brief Overview of the Pathogenesis

Risk Factors

Magnitude of the Problem

Epidemiological Studies on Clinical Effects among Healthcare Workers Assigned to Manual Patient-Handling Tasks

The International Experience

The Italian Experience


Manual Handling in the Healthcare Sector: The International Approach to Risk Assessment


Risk Assessment Methods in the International Literature

Guidelines for the Prevention of Risk due to Patient Handling

ISO-CEN Technical Report

Manual Patient-Handling Risks: Occupational Biomechanics (Biomechanical Hazards of Manual Patient Handling)


The Study of Occupational Biomechanics

Occupational Biomechanics Studies in Manual Patient Handling

Methods and Criteria for Analyzing Manual Patient Handling by Healthcare Workers


Organizational Analysis

Patient-Handling Operators

Description and Number of Dependent Patients

Description of Operator Training

Definition of Patient-Handling Tasks

Analysis of Patient-Handling Devices

Description of Wheelchairs

Environmental Assessment


Bathrooms and Toilets

Patient Rooms

Description of Patient Beds

Criteria for Defining the Specific MAPO Index of Wards

Value of the Lifting Devices Factor (LF)

Value of the Minor Aids Factor (AF)

Value of the Wheelchair Factor (WF)

Value of the Environmental Factor (EF)

Value of the Training Factor (TF)

Characteristics of Italian Extended Care Facilities

MAPO Risk Estimation and Screening

Ward Characteristics with Respect to Different Shift Schedules

MAPO Index Validation: Studies on the Association with WMSDs


Results and Description of Exposure Levels in Study Wards

Relationship between MAPO Exposure Index and Acute Low-Back Pain in the Previous Months

MAPO Screening Method: Validation Study

Results and Description of Exposure Levels in Study Wards

Relationship between the MAPO Screening Index and Acute Low-Back Pain during the Previous Months

Reference Values

Analysis of Patient-Handling Tasks in Operating Rooms


Data Collection Protocol

Operators Involved in Patient-Handling Activities

Description and Number of Surgical Procedures

Description and Quantification of Handling Maneuvers

Example of Description and Quantification of Disabled-Patient-Handling Tasks

Description of Operator Training

On-Site Inspection

Analysis of Patient-Handling Devices

Adequacy of the Environment

Example of On-Site Inspection: Description of Equipment and Environment/Furnishings

Estimated Risk Exposure in Surgical Unit and Summary of Risk Factors

Equipment Factor

Stretcher Factor, Environment Factor

Training Factor

Analysis of Outpatient Services and Day Hospital


Data Collection Sheet: Organizational Aspects

Quantification of the Average Number of NC and PC Patients

Description and Quantification of Disabled Patient-Handling Tasks

Example of Quantification of Lifting Maneuvers

Description of Patient-Handling Assistive Devices

Adequacy of Environment and Furnishings

Assessment of MPH Risk Exposure in Outpatient Services: Summary and Criteria for Estimating Exposure

Emergency Department: Setting Up Preventive Strategies for Manual Patient Handling


Information Gathering: The Data Collection Sheet

Organizational Aspects

On-Site Inspection: Description of Patient-Handling Equipment

On-Site Inspection: Assessment of Space and Furnishings

Risk Exposure Assessment: Final Overview

Procedures and Tools for Choosing Adequate Equipment


Approaches to Choosing Adequate Lifting Aids

Approaches to Choosing Height-Adjustable Stretchers

Approaches to Choosing Patient Beds

Approaches to Choosing Minor Aids

Approaches to Choosing Wheelchairs

Approaches to Choosing Patient Washing Aids

Definition and Management of Preventive Planning


Approaches to Staff Training

Testing the Effectiveness of Preventive Strategies

Mapping Risk in a Hospital: Examples of Procedures and Applications

Other Effectiveness-Testing Tools

Examples of Manual Patient-Handling Risk Assessment in Various Wards



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Service Industries
MEDICAL / Administration
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety