Pavement Engineering: Principles and Practice, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (e-Book) book cover

Pavement Engineering

Principles and Practice, Second Edition

Edited by Rajib B. Mallick, Tahar El-Korchi

© 2013 – CRC Press

694 pages | 449 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-04-19
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Pavements are engineered structures essential to transportation, commerce and trade, and everyday life. In order for them to perform as expected, they must be designed, constructed, maintained, and managed properly. Providing a comprehensive overview of the subject, Pavement Engineering: Principles and Practice, Second Edition covers a wide range of topics in asphalt and concrete pavements, from soil preparation to structural design and construction. This new edition includes updates in all chapters and two new chapters on emerging topics that are becoming universally important: engineering of sustainable pavements and environmental mitigation in transportation projects. It also contains new examples and new figures with more informative schematics as well as helpful photographs.

The text describes the significance of standards and examines traffic, drainage, concrete mixes, asphalt binders, distress and performance in concrete and asphalt pavements, and pavement maintenance and rehabilitation. It also contains a chapter on airport pavements and discusses nondestructive tests for pavement engineering using nuclear, deflection-based, electromagnetic, and seismic equipment. The authors explore key concepts and techniques for economic analysis and computing life-cycle cost, instrumentation for acquiring test data, and specialty applications of asphalt and concrete.

The Second Edition includes more relevant issues and recently developed techniques and guidelines for practical problems, such as selection of pavement type, effect of vehicle tires, and use of smart sensors in rollers and software for drainage analysis. This book presents in-depth, state-of-the-art knowledge in a range of relevant topics in pavement engineering, with numerous examples and figures and comprehensive references to online resources for literature and software. It provides a good understanding of construction practices essential for new engineers and materials processing and construction needed for solving numerous problems.


"The authors provide a very comprehensive treatment of pavement engineering. … The clear strength of this text is the breadth of coverage of the major components of the pavement system – materials, structural design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. The authors provide a nice balance of the theoretical basis for many analyses with a practical eye towards designing and building pavements which will perform."

—Kevin D. Hall, Ph.D., P.E., University of Arkansas

Table of Contents

Introduction and Description of Pavements



Design and Construction

Maintenance and Rehabilitation

Important Issues

Functional Requirements

Types and Uses of Pavements

Different Features of Typical Asphalt Pavements

Different Features of Typical Concrete Pavements

Research on Pavements


Principles of Mix and Structural Design and Construction of Asphalt Pavement


Traffic and Load Distribution Concept

Materials and Layers


Mix Design

Structural Design

Link between Mix and Structural Design

Theoretical Considerations for Structural Design

Principles of Good Construction

Putting Everything Together


Principles of Structural Design, Mix Design, and Construction of Concrete Pavements


Structural Design

Theoretical Considerations

Computer Programs for Rigid Pavements

Combined Stresses

Stresses due to Friction

Joint Opening


Concrete Properties and Mix Design



Importance of Standards

The American Society of Testing and Materials

The American Society of State Highway and Transportation Officials

Use of Standards in Materials Selection, Mix Design, and Structural Design

Use of Standards in Quality Control in Construction

Important Specifications



Different Types of Highway Traffic

Measurement of Traffic Loads

Load Equivalency Factor and Equivalent Single-Axle Load

Alternative Load Equivalent Factor Concept

Equivalent Single-Wheel Load

Truck Tire Pressure

Truck Speed

Aircraft Loading, Gear Configuration, and Tire Pressure



Source and Effect of Water

Estimating Flow

Hydroplaning and Surface Drainage System


Subsurface Drainage System

Design of Subsurface Drainage Structures

Consideration of Drainage in Pavement Design

Pumping in Rigid Pavements

Use of Software for Design of Drainage Structures




Soils in Subgrade

Mass–Volume Relationships

Grain Size Distribution: Gradation

Effect of Water

Soil Classification

Density and Optimum Moisture Content

Hydraulic Conductivity

Frost Susceptibility

Swell Potential

Stiffness and Strength of Soils

Subgrade Soil Tests for Rigid Pavements

Subbase and Unstabilized Base

Soil Stabilization Concepts and Methods: Chemical and Mechanical

Dust Control


Aggregates for Asphalt and Concrete Mixes

Definition, Parent Rock, and Types

Suitability for Application


Overview of Desirable Properties

Gradation for Asphalt Pavements

Specific Gravities and Absorption

Cleanliness and Deleterious Materials

Toughness or Resistance against Abrasion Loss

Particle Shape and Surface Texture


Expansive Characteristics

Polishing and Frictional Characteristics

Aggregate Tests Specifically for Concrete

Automated Aggregate Analysis (AASHTO TP81 and PP64)

Artificial Aggregates


Asphalt and Emulsions

Asphalt Binder

Naturally Occurring Asphalts

Refined Asphalt from Crude Oil

Safe Delivery, Storage, and Handling of Asphalts

Asphalt Binder Properties

Asphalt Binder Properties and Pavement Distress and Performance


Viscoelastic Nature of Asphalt and Direct Measurement of Stiffness

Tensile Behavior

Superpave (Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements)

Recovery of Asphalt Binder from Asphalt Mix

Adhesion Properties

Asphalt Emulsions


Concrete Fundamentals for Rigid Pavements






Steel in Concrete


Distress and Performance

Distresses in Asphalt Pavements

Distresses in Concrete Pavements

Consideration of Performance


Forensic Investigation for Determination of Type and Cause of Distress


Consideration of Major Distress Mechanisms and Material Characterization for Asphalt Pavements

Fatigue Cracking

Thermal Cracking

Rutting or Permanent Deformation

Smoothness Consideration

Top-Down Cracking


Distress Models and Material Characterization for Concrete Pavements

Distresses and Models

Tests for Concrete


Mix and Structural Design of Asphalt Mix Layers

Physical and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mix

Mix Design Methods

Structural Design


Mix Design and Structural Design for Concrete Pavements

Mix Design

Structural Design


Construction of Asphalt Pavements


Description and Requirements of Components in Hot Mix Asphalt–Producing Plants

Equipment Used for Transportation, Laydown, and Compaction

Important Factors


Preparation of Subgrade and Construction of Base and Subbase Layers

Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Construction of Longitudinal Joints


Construction of Concrete Pavements


Concrete Production

Preparation of Subgrade and Base

Presetting Reinforcements such as Dowel Bars, Tiebars, and Continuous Reinforcement

PCC Slab Construction



Paving in Hot and Cold Weather Conditions



Joint Sealing


Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements: Pavement Management Systems


Steps in PMS

Different PMS Approaches

Distress Survey

Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Asphalt Pavements

Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Concrete Pavements

Warranty Projects


Airport Pavements

Types, Importance, and Specifications

Structural Design of Airport Asphalt Mix Pavements

Design of Concrete Pavements

Design for Airport Pavements with Light Aircrafts

Advanced Design Methods

Nondestructive Testing and Rehabilitation of Airfield Pavements


Rehabilitation of PCC Airport Pavements

Construction Quality Control and Acceptance Testing

Constructing, Checking, and Improving Friction/Skid Resistance Drainage of Runways

Asphalt Mixes for Airport Pavement

Maintenance of Airport Pavements


Nondestructive Tests

Nuclear Gage

Falling Weight Deflectometer

Portable Falling Weight Deflectometer

Rolling Wheel Deflectometer

GeoGauge (Soil Stiffness Gauge) for Soil Compaction

Ground-Penetrating Radar

Portable Seismic Pavement Analyzer

Free Free Resonant Column Test

Ultrasonic Test

Magnetic Induction Tomography


Economic Analysis and Cost-Saving Concepts

Economic Analysis

Cost-Saving Concepts


Instrumentation in Asphalt and Concrete Pavement


Soil Moisture Content

Frost Depth

Strain in Asphalt or Concrete Pavement and Soil Layers

Stress in Soil Layers

Deflection in Layers

Data Acquisition Systems


Specialty Applications

Asphalt Mixtures

Concrete Whitetopping


Sustainable Pavement Engineering

Need for Pavements

First Consideration

Design of Layout of Pavements

Construction of Pavements

Use of Waste and Byproducts in Pavements



Regulatory Bodies and Impetus for Sustainability

Human Factor


Environmental Mitigation in Transportation Projects

How Transportation Impacts the Environment

Model for Assessing Impacts and Developing Mitigation Measures

Project Conception

Impact Assessment

Alternatives Analysis

Public Involvement and Review

Enforcement and Post-Project Monitoring

Transportation Planning and Regional Mitigation Approaches


Conversion Factors

References and Bibliography


About the Editors

Dr. Rajib Mallick, PE, has extensive experience with asphalt materials, mixture design, construction, pavement design, recycling, and nondestructive testing. From 1992 to 1998, he worked as a research assistant and as a senior research associate at the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) and is currently the Ralph White Family Distinguished Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). He has completed numerous research projects for several departments of transportation, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several private practitioner organizations. Dr. Mallick has coauthored more than 100 papers for journals and conference proceedings, as well as several practical reports, manuals, and state-of-the-practice reports for federal, state, and local highway agencies.

Dr. Tahar El-Korchi is a professor and head of civil and environmental engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He does research and teaches courses on pavement analysis, design and management, construction materials testing and evaluation, cement and concrete materials and construction processes, structural analysis and design, and high-performance structural materials at the undergraduate and graduate level. He has published more than 80 publications and presentations and has served at numerous WPI global project centers, including Puerto Rico; Washington, District of Columbia; Morocco; Costa Rica; and Panama. Dr. El-Korchi was granted the prestigious Presidential Young Investigator Award by the National Science Foundation in 1991. Dr. El-Korchi is also a consultant to several major corporations. He provides recommendations for the design and evaluation of pavements, materials, and structures.

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