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Since pediatric surgeons can and do perform nearly every major pediatric surgical procedure laparoscopically, and since many of the approaches have evolved some over the years—past the learning curve—into cost effective operations that rarely take extra time to perform, or in some cases save time, it is worthwhile reviewing our current practices. This book, then, serves as both an update of current practices and as a manual for how to approach the most common of the pediatric disorders using laparoscopic techniques. It covers the basics of anesthesia, instrumentation and ergonomics and then reviews many of the more commonly performed laparoscopic and thoracoscopic pediatric procedures, including a review of fetal work. While any book written about such a rapidly evolving technique may miss some of the very newest twists and modifications of technique, it is our hope that most of the contents will serve the readers as a reference for years to come as they care for children with common pediatric surgical problems.