People, Process, and Culture: Lean Manufacturing in the Real World, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

People, Process, and Culture

Lean Manufacturing in the Real World, 1st Edition

By Jeffrey P. Wincel, Thomas J. Kull, PhD

Productivity Press

153 pages | 4 B/W Illus.

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Examining Lean processes in the context of the authors’ academic research in-progress, People, Process, & Culture: Lean Manufacturing in the Real World illustrates the impact of culture on the implementation of Lean Manufacturing (LM) across various geographic and cultural areas. It identifies cultural values, as examined against Lean manufacturing disciplines, and derives culturally based Lean Manufacturing (LM) values. It then assesses these cultural values in light of specific LM components, such as PULL systems and TPM, to demonstrate varying perspectives and applications.

  • Illustrates global cultural influences on Lean implementation
  • Uses academic research as the foundation of the material
  • Examines the many Lean components currently in use around the world

Building on the continued prominence of LM as the preferred operational approach, the book supplies time-tested advice to help you sort through the flood of information on Lean techniques and culture. It examines the numerous Lean components currently being deployed successfully around the world and identifies the limitations that can result from the varying interpretations and applications of Lean systems.

Lean culture is all about Lean vision, mission, and values. This book not only identifies the Lean values required, but also supplies the understanding to integrate these values across all levels of your organization. The book will be especially helpful to international corporate managers working to demystify the sometimes hard-to-understand characteristics of Lean transformation.


… rather than learn the hard way, this book can serve as a trainer-coach, helping you and your organization make the Lean transformation by exposing where your values, or thinking, may also have some gaps. … provides clear objective data, going beyond what has been said qualitatively and instead giving quantitative evidence. … This is a pioneering book. It will help Lean champions pinpoint where specifically their team, their leadership, and their organizations may struggle with the Lean mindset.

—Michael Hoseus,co-author ofToyota Culture: The Heart and Soul of the Toyota Way

Table of Contents

Introducing the Lean Culture


Countercultural Influences

The DNA of the Lean Manufacturing System

Complex and Organic

Questions to Consider

Developing Lean Values

Lean Manufacturing Components

Organizational Values

The Eight Lean Values

Lean Value Consistency

Highly Consistent Values

LM2 Time

LM3 Motivation

LM4 Variance

LM7 Control

Partially Consistent LM Values

LM1 Truth

LM5 Vocation

LM6 Cooperation

Focus LM8


Questions to Consider

The Hypotheses of Lean Culture

Developing the Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: Lean Practices Are Positively Related to Performance

Moderating Influence of Culture on H1

Hypothesis 2: Institutional Collectivism Positively Affects LM Effectiveness

LM Action Example

Hypothesis 3: Uncertainty Avoidance Positively Affects LM Effectiveness

Hypothesis 4: Assertiveness Negatively Moderates LM Effectiveness

Hypothesis 5: Future Orientation Negatively Moderates LM Effectiveness

Hypothesis 6: Performance Orientation Negatively Moderates LM Effectiveness

Dimensions with No Net Influence on LM Effectiveness


Questions to Consider

Measuring Lean Culture


Using the GLOBE Measures of Culture

Hierarchical Linear Model Approach


Questions to Consider

Assessing the Results

Data Analysis Summary

What Did the Data Show?

Overall Effectiveness of Lean Manufacturing

Effects of Country Cultural Dimensions

"No-Effect" Cultural Dimensions

Study Summary

Questions to Consider

The Implications of Lean Culture


Theoretical Implications

Organic World Complexity

Managerial Implications

Countries of Choice

How versus What to Implement

Questions to Consider


The Global Profile

The Global Cultures

Region/Culture: Anglo

Region/Culture: Latin Europe

Region/Culture: Nordic Europe

Region/Culture: Germanic Europe

Region/Culture: Eastern Europe

Region/Culture: Latin America

Region/Culture: Sub-Saharan Africa

Region/Culture: Middle East

Region/Culture: Southern Asia

Region/Culture: Confucian Asia

Ranking the Cultures and Countries


Questions to Consider

Appendix: Studies, Data, and Analysis

Lean Expert Survey

Lean Manufacturing Definition

Value Dimensions with Clear Distinctions





Value Dimensions with a Slight Distinction



Study Data




About the Authors

Jeffrey P. Wincel is founder and president of LSC Consulting Group - an independent professional consulting service specializing in Lean supply chain management. Mr. Wincel was also an adjunct professor of supply chain management for Grand Valley State University’s MBA and undergraduate programs. In 2004, Mr. Wincel released his first book through Productivity Press, titled Lean Supply Chain Management: A Handbook for Strategic Procurement. Previously Mr. Wincel served as VP & General Manager and Vice President of Corporate Procurement & Materials for Donnelly Corporation. Prior to Donnelly Corporation, Mr. Wincel served as Director of Worldwide Purchasing for TRW-Vehicle Safety Systems, Inc (VSSI) & Director of Worldwide Purchasing for TRW Occupant Restraints System Group (ORSG).

Mr. Wincel has a Master’s of Business Administration (MBA) from Michigan State University; has been selected as one "Pros to Know" by Supply & Demand Chain Executive Magazine in 2002, 2004, 2007, & 2012. He is a frequent contributor to many professional & industry publications, including Supply Chain Management Review and Purchasing Magazine. Mr. Wincel has also been a featured presenter at the University of Michigan Conference on Lean Manufacturing, the National Manufacturing Week Conference, the Institute for Supply Management, and the Institute for International Research. Mr. Wincel has also been a panelist on the ISM national satellite education series.

Thomas J.Kullis an assistant professor of supply chain management in the W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University. Along with 13 years of industry experience in the steel processing, automotive, and construction equipment industries; he also holds a PhD in operations and sourcing management from Michigan State University. He researches behavioral issues in operations and supply chain management, as well as supply chain risk issues. He has published in the Journal of Operations Management, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Decision Sciences Journal, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, European Journal of Operational Research, and International Journal of Operations and Production Management. He serves on numerous editorial review boards, including Journal of Operations Management, Decision Sciences Journal, Journal of Business Logistics, and Journal of Supply Chain Management. He is a member of the Decision Sciences Institute, Academy of Management, and Production and Operations Management Society.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Workplace Culture