Percutaneous Absorption : Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods book cover
5th Edition

Percutaneous Absorption
Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods

ISBN 9781138351233
Published July 30, 2021 by CRC Press
1008 Pages 177 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods, Fifth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous metabolism, skin contamination, exposure to protein allergens, in vitro absorption methodology and the percutaneous absorption of chemical mixtures. Complete with studies on the role of the skin as a key portal of entry for chemicals into the body, this book serves as a detailed reference source for recent advances in the field, as well as an experimental guide for laboratory personnel.

Key Features:

  • Details in vivo and in vitro methods for measuring absorption, dermal decontamination, mechanisms of transdermal delivery, and the relationship of transepidermal water loss to percutaneous absorption
  • Considers a range of mathematical models, the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients, the absorption of hair dyes, nanoparticles for drug delivery, and other novel methods of drug delivery
  • Discusses topics including skin metabolism, the skin reservoir, and the effects of desquamation on absorption

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Molecular structure and function of the skin barrier

Lars Norlén

Chapter 2 Mathematical Models in Percutaneous Absorption  

Michael S. Roberts and Yuri G. Anissimov

Chapter 3 In Vivo Percutaneous Absorption: A Key Role for Stratum Corneum/ Vehicle Partitioning           

André Rougier

Chapter 4 The Skin Reservoir for Topically Applied Solutes      

Michael S. Roberts, Sheree E. Cross, and Yuri G. Anissimov

Chapter 5 Chemical Partitioning into Powdered Human Stratum Corneum: A Useful In Vitro Model for Studying Interaction of Chemicals and Human Skin  

Xiao-Ying Hui and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 6  Variations of Hair Follicle Size and Distribution in Different Body Sites       

Nina Otberg, Heike Richter, Hans Schaefer, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Wolfram Sterry, and Jürgen Lademann

Chapter 7 In Vivo Relationship Between Percutaneous Absorption and Transepidermal Water Loss           

André Rougier, Claire Lotte, Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 8 The correlation between transepidermal water loss and percutaneous absorption: An updated overview      

Marjan Koosha Johnson, Jacquelyn Levin*, and Howard Maibach

Chapter 9 Human Percutaneous Absorption and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) Correlation           

Howard I.Maibach

Chapter 10 Evaluation of Stratum Corneum Heterogeneity        

Gerald B. Kasting, Matthew A. Miller, and Priya S. Talreja

Chapter 11 Regional Variation in Percutaneous Absorption: Principles and Applications to Human Risk Assessment    

Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 12 Effects of Anatomical Location on In Vivo Percutaneous Penetration in Man         

Jordan L Bormann and Howard Maibach

Chapter 13 Interrelationships in the Dose-Response of Percutaneous Absorption        

Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 14 Effects of Occlusion: Percutaneous Absorption         

Nina Dragicevic and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 15 Occlusion Does Not Uniformly Enhance Penetration In Vivo

Daniel Bucks and Howard Maibach

Chapter 16 Effect of Single vs. Multiple Dosing in Percutaneous Absorption      

Howard I.Maibach

Chapter 17 Influence of formulation on topical and transdermal drug delivery

Heather A.E Benson, Hamid R. Moghimi, Jeffrey E. Grice and Michael S. Roberts

Chapter 18 In Vitro Release from Semisolid Dosage Forms—What Is Its Value?

Vinod P Shah

Chapter 19 Understanding Skin Metabolism: Effect on Altering In Vitro Skin Absorption and Bioavailability of Topically Applied Chemicals

Jeffrey J. Yourick and Margaret E.K. Kraeling

Chapter 20 Phenomenon of Lateral Spread in Percutaneous Penetration          

Rebecca M. Law, Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 21 Clinically Pertinent Factors/Observations Affecting Percutaneous Absorption in Humans           

Rebecca M Law, Mai A Ngo, Howard I Maibach

Chapter 22 Percutaneous Absorption of Chemical Mixtures      

Jim E. Riviere

Chapter 23 Dermal Decontamination and Percutaneous Absorption     

Howard I.Maibach

Chapter 24 Skin Decontaminartion          

Annick Roul, Howard HI Maibach

Chapter 25 Chemical Warfare Agent VX Penetration Through Military Uniform and Human Skin: Risk Assessment and Decontamination    

Howard I.Maibach

Chapter 26 Percutaneous Absorption of Hazardous Chemicals from Fabric into and Through Human Skin           

Howard I.Maibach

Chapter 27 Percutaneous Absorption of Chemicals from Fabric (Textile)         

Jordan L Bormann, Ayse Sermin Filiz Acipayam and Howard I Maibach

Chapter 28 The Fate of Material Remaining in Skin in In Vitro Absorption Studies        

Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

Chapter 29 Skin Absorption of Hair Dyes 

Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

Chapter 30 Hair Dye Penetration in Monkey and Man    

Leszek J. Wolfram and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 31 Percutaneous Absorption of Sunscreens       

Heather A.E. Benson, Yousuf H. Mohammed, Kenneth A. Walters and Michael S. Roberts

Chapter 32 Sunscreen Percutaneous Penetration in Vivo in Man         

Pranav Vasu and Howard Maibach

Chapter 33 Cutaneous Metabolism of Xenobiotics           

Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 34 Chemical modification: an important and feasible method for improving peptide and protein dermal and transdermal delivery      

Seyedeh Maryam Mortazavi, Hamid R. Moghimia, Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 35 Enchancing Percutaneous Penetration of Oligonucleotide Drugs    

Howard I. Maibach and Myeong Jun Choi

Chapter 36 Use of Microemulsions for Topical Drug Delivery     

Efrem N. Tessema, Sandra Heuschkel, Anuj Shukla, and Reinhard H. H. Neubert

Chapter 37 Transdermal Delivery of Vesicular Nanocarriers Under Electrical Potential

Ebtessam A. Essa , Gamal M. El Maghraby, Michael C. Bonner and Brian W. Barry

Chapter 38 Nanocarriers and physical methods  

Nina Dragicevic

Chapter 39 Assessment of Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery          

Melissa Kirkby, Kurtis J. Moffatt, Aaron. R.J. Hutton, Inken Ramöeller, Peter E. McKenna, Marco T.A. Abbate, Sarah A. Stewart, Ryan F. Donnelly

Chapter 40 Clinical Testing of Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery     

Raja K. Sivamani, Gabriel C. Wu, Boris Stoeber, Dorian Liepmann, Hongbo Zhai and Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 41 Delivery of drugs, vaccines, and cosmeceuticals to skin using microneedle patches           

Yasmine Gomaa and Mark R. Prausnitz

Chapter 42 Mirconeedle dermatotoxicology       

Boen Wang

Chapter 43 Transdermal Transport by sonophoresis       

Laurent Machet and Alain Boucaud

Chapter 44 Effect of Tape Stripping on Percutaneous Penetration and Topical Vaccination     

Howard I.Maibach, Myeong Jun Choi and Harald Löffler

Chapter 45 Transcutaneous Delivery of Drugs by Electroporation          

Shivakumar H Najappa, S.Narasimha Murthy


Taís Gratieri, Yogeshvar N. Kalia


Christian Surber

Chapter 48 The role of in vitro skin models in optimization of dermal drug delivery     

Gøril Eide Flaten and Željka Vanić and Nataša Škalko-Basnet

Chapter 49 Effects of phospholipids on skin: use of primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as 2D cell culture models    

Claudia Vater, Claudia Valenta, Victoria Klang

Chapter 50 Human cadaver skin viability for in vitro percutaneous absorption: storage and detrimental effects ...        

Ronald C. Wester, Julie Christoffel, Tracy Hartway, Nicholas Poblete, Howard I. Maibach and James Forsell

Chapter 51 Determination of Percutaneous Absorption by In Vitro Techniques

Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

Chapter 52 Stripping Method for Measuring Percutaneous Absorption In Vivo 

André Rougier, Claire Lotte, Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 53 Tape Stripping - Technique and Applications

Rebekka Christmann, Anne S. Raber, Ulrich F. Schaefer, Ana Melero and Brigitta Loretz

Chapter 54 Blood flow as technology in percutaneous absorption         

Ethel Tur

Chapter 55 Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy in the assessment of skin barrier function and drug penetration    

Jacqueline Resende de Azevedo, Yuri Dancik, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Stéphanie Briançon, Yves Chevalier

Chapter 56 Microscopy methods for assessing percutaneous drug penetration         

Miko Yamada, Peter Hoffmann and Tarl Prow

Chapter 57 Dermal sampling techniques with focus on dermal Open Flow Microperfusion     

Thomas Birngruber, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Frank Sinner

Chapter 58 Dermal-epidermal Separation Methods: Research Implications      

Ying Zou

Chapter 59 Use of Skin Absorption Data in the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients       

Jeffrey J. Yourick and Margaret E.K. Kraeling


Isadore Kanfer

Chapter 61 In Vitro Human Nail Model To Evaluate Ungual Absorption and Transungual Delivery           

Xaoying Hui, Howard I. Maibach

Chapter 62 Drug Permeation through Burn Eschar: Possibilities and Improvements     

Hamid R. Moghimi, Seyedeh Maryam Mortazavi, Howard I. Maibach

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Dr. Nina Dragićević is a professor in Pharmaceutical technology at the Department of Pharmacy at the Singidunum University in Belgrade, Serbia. She earned her master’s degree at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Pharmacy, in 1999 and subsequently earned a Magister Degree and a PhD (summa cum laude, Dr. rer. nat.) in Pharmaceutical technology from the University of Belgrade and the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany, respectively. Before her employment at the University Singidunum, Dr. Dragićević worked as an accredited specialist in Pharmaceutical technology in the state pharmaceutical chain Apoteka "Beograd" in Belgrade. From 2007 to 2013 she was responsible for the preparation of compounded drugs for different routes of administration in pharmacies of Apoteka "Beograd", and in 2013 she was appointed director of the Production Department in the same company. She has published in a variety of international journals and she is editor of six books.

Professor Howard I. Maibach, Ph.D. is currently serving as Professor of Dermatology at the University of California, San Francisco. He earned his MD from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA in 1955. Later he served in faculty positions in various levels at the UCSF. Dr. Maibach has over 2,520 published manuscripts. He has been on the editorial board of more than 30 scientific journals and is a member of 19 professional societies including the American Academy of Dermatology, San Francisco Dermatological Society and the Internal Commission on Occupation Health.


"Understanding dermal absorption and developing mathematical models for absorption and dermal drug development is a complex process. This book is intended for scientists working in dermal absorption, degradation, and
toxicities of drugs, cosmetics, and chemicals, who will find it informative. With a few new chapters, this book could be considered a comprehensive and updated reference. There are several books related to this subject matter in the marketplace, but each focuses on a particular area of the broader topic. Thus, this reference is a must-have in a library. "

- Rahmat M. Talukder, PhD, RPh(The University of Texas at Tyler)