Perestroika In The Soviet Republics: Documents On The National Question, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Perestroika In The Soviet Republics

Documents On The National Question, 1st Edition

By Charles F Furtado, Andrea Chandler

Routledge

646 pages

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"The political and economic changes that occurred in the Soviet Union in the six and one-half years of Mikhail Gorbachev's tenure as General Secretary were breathtaking in their scope and rapidity, going far beyond most observeiS' expectatiom. Certainly, the process of refonn which we call perestroilal transfonned the ossified one-party socialist state that had prevailed underGorbachev's predecessors. The reasons for embarking on such a coume of reform were varied-eamomic aism and a decline in the Soviet state's ability to provide social welfare services for its citizens, an increasingly apathetic population, and a tense international environment-all of these factoiS convinced the Soviet leadeiShip of the necessity of drastic change. The policies of Gorbachev set refonn in motion: freeing public expression (glllsnost); encouraging economic decentralization and private initiative; and creating a more cooperative relationship with the West."

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments--1 Introduction--2 Documents from the Center--Program of the 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,--Speech by CPSU General Secretary,Mikhail S. Gorbachev to the Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee,--Resolution of the 19th All-Union CPSU Conference: "On Interethnic Relations," --USSR Law on Amendments and Additions to the USSR Constitution (Fundamental Law) -- Draft Nationalities Policy of the Party Under Present Conditions (CPSU Platform), Adopted at the CPSU Central Committee Plenum -- USSR Supreme Soviet Declaration on Recognizing as illegal and Criminal the Repressive Acts Against Peoples Subjected to Forcible Resettlement and on Ensuring Their Rights -- USSR Law on Procedure for Resolving Questions Connected with a Union Republic's Secession from the USSR -- Resolution of the 28th CPSU Congress: "A Democratic Nationalities Policy Is the Way to Voluntary Union,--Peace, and Harmony Among the Peoples," --The Shatalin Plan for Economic Stabilization -- Law of the USSR on Additional Measures to Stabilize the Economic and Sociopolitical Life of the Country -- Treaty of the Union of Sovereign States -- Message to the Soviet People from the State Committee for the State of Emergency -- Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms -- Statement by Mikhail S. Gorbachev on the Commonwealth of Independent States -- 3 Documents from the Baltic Republics--Introduction--Documents from Estonia--Proposal for the Creation of the Estonian National Independence Party -- Reaction of the Popular Front of Estonia to the Draft Amendments to the USSR Constitution -- Law of the Estonian SSR on Making Changes in and Additions to the Estonian Constitution -- Declaration of the Estonian Supreme Soviet in Respect of the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR,--Decree of the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium on the Nonconformity of the Estonian SSR Law: 'On Amendments and Additions to the Constitution(Basic Law) of the Estonian SSR/ and the Estonian SSR Supreme Soviet Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR -- Speech by M.S. Gorbachev to the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium -- Speech by Arnold Ruutel, Chairman of the Estonian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium, to the USSR Supreme Soviet,--Language Law of the Estonian SSR -- Resolution of the Estonian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium: "On Measures to Ensure Lawfulness and Law and Order in the Republic," --USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium Decree: "On the Non-Accordance with the USSR Constitution of Some Clauses of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic Law, 'On Introduction of Amendments and Additions to the Estonian SSR Constitution--(Fundamental Law)' and the Estonian SSR Law, 'On Elections to Local Soviets of People's Deputies in the Estonian SSR,'" --Statement by the Republican Council of Representatives of Strike Committees of the FSSR,--Draft Action Program of the Communist Party of Estonia [CPE],--Draft Law of the Estonian SSR: "On the National Rights of Citizens of the Estonian SSR,"--Election Platform of the Popular Front of Estonia -- Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR on the Historic-Juridical Evaluation of the Events in Estonia in 1940 -- Resolution of the Estonian SSR Supreme Soviet on Preparations for Estonian State Independence -- Manifesto of the Congress of Estonia -- Conclusions of the Congress of Estonia on Steps Toward Restoring the Independence of the Republic of Estonia (Program of Action) -- Resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR on the State Status of Estonia -- Republic of Estonia Law on the Basic Principles of Provisional Rule in Estonia -- Decree of the Estonian Supreme Soviet on Relations with the USSR -- Statement by USSR President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in Response to the 7 August Decree of the Estonian Supreme Soviet,--Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia to Hold a Referendum on the Issue of the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Estonia -- Statement by the Government of the Republic of Estonia -- The Republic of Estonia Supreme Council Resolution on the National Independence of Estonia, --Letter from the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia Arnold Ruutel Addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations,--Documents from Latvia--Resolution of the Board of the Latvian SSR Writers' Association,--Announcement from the Initiative Group of the Latvian National Independence Movement -- Draft Law on Addendum to Latvian SSR Constitution (Basic Law),--Resolution of the Latvian SSR Supreme Soviet: "On Measures to Arrest Unjustified Mechanical Growth of the Population and to Regulate Migration Processes in the Latvian SSR,"--Resolution of the Latvian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium on the Activity of the Latvian National Independence Movement,--Law on Languages of the Latvian SSR,--Draft Law of the Latvian SSR: "On the Economic Independence of the Latvian SSR,"--Latvian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium Resolution on Activity to Form Citizens' Committees,--Draft Amendment of Article 31 of the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Latvian SSR,--Declaration of the Latvian SSR Supreme Soviet on the National Sovereignty of Latvia,--Popular Front of Latvia Statement on CPSU Baltic Resolution,--Decision of the Latvian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium on Proposals for Making Changes in the Legislation on Military Service,--Changes to the Latvian SSR Constitution on the Legal Status of Alternative Parties,--Election Program of the Popular Front of Latvia,--Draft Program of the Independent Communist Party of Latvia,--Declaration of the Latvian Supreme Soviet on the Restoration of State Independence,--Decree of the Latvian Supreme Soviet Presidium Regarding Participation in the Elaboration and Adoption of a Union Treaty,--Decree of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia About the Unacceptable Criminal Activity of Special Forces Militia Units and USSR Armed Forces in the Territory of the Republic of Latvia,--Declaration of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia on the Extraordinary Congress of Baltic Military Officers,--Appeal of the Latvian Supreme Soviet to the Soviet Armed Forces,--The Constitutional Law of the Republic of Latvia on the Status of the Republic of Latvia as a State,--Letter from the Vice-Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia Dainis lvans to the Secretary-General of the United Nations,--Documents from Lithutmia--The Program of Demands of the Lithuanian Restructuring Movement, Sajudis,--Proposals by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania [CPU] to the CPSU Central Committee Plenum: "On Improvement of International Relations in the USSR," --Draft Constitution (Basic Law) of the Lithuanian SSR,--Lithuanian SSR Supreme Soviet Declaration on the State Sovereignty of Lithuania,--Lithuanian SSR Law on the Introduction of Amendments to the Lithuanian SSR Constitution (Basic Law),--Appeal by the Lithuanian SSR Supreme Soviet to Lithuania's Poles,--Decree of the 22nd Congress of the Lithuanian Communist Youth League Concerning the Independence of the Lithuanian Communist Youth League,--Conclusions of the Lithuanian SSR Supreme Soviet Commission to Examine the 1939 Treaties Between Germany and the USSR and Their Consequences,--Statement by the Lithuanian SSR Supreme Soviet on the Political Situation in the Republic,--Information Report of the All-Union Leninist Communist Youth League Commission Studying Problems Relating to the 22nd Lithuanian Komsomol Congress,--Lithuanian SSR Law on Changing Article 50 of the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Lithuanian SSR,--Law on National Minorities of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic,--The Communist Party of Lithuania Declaration of independence,--Report by M.S. Gorbachev to the CPSU Central Committee Plenum: "Fate of Perestroika Is in Unity of Party,"--Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania on the Restoration of the Lithuanian State,--Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania on the Invalidity on the Territory of the Republic of Lithuania of the USSR Law of 12 October 1967 Concerning Mandatory Military Service,--Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania on the Formation of Border Guard Posts of the Republic of Lithuania,--Resolution by the Extraordinary Session of the Third Congress of People's :Deputies of the USSR on the Decisions of 10-12 March 1990 Made by the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR,--Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania on the Legal Status of Persons Who Left the Military Units of the USSR Armed Forces,--Telegram from the President of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR,--:Decree of the President of the USSR, M.S. Gorbachev,--Letter to Mikhail Gorbachev from Vytautas Landsbergis,--President of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, and Kazimiera Prunskiene, Prime Minister of the Republic of Lithuania,--Address by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania to the Parliaments and Governments of Nations Which are Signatories of the Helsinki Final Act,--Appeal of USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev to the People of the Republic of Lithuania,--Response of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev's Appeal of 31 March 1990,--Telegram of USSR President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and USSR Prime Minister Nikolai I. Ryzhkov to the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Lithuania,--Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Temporary Measures Under Conditions of the Economic Blockade Being Carried Out by the USSR,--Moratorium on the Lithuanian Act of Independence by the Lithuanian Supreme Council,--Declaration of the Supreme Council and Government of the Lithuanian Republic to M.S. Gorbachev and N.I. Ryzhkov,--Appeal of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo to Lithuania,--Declaration of Soviet President Gorbachev to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania,--Statement of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania,--Letter from the President of the Supreme Council of Lithuania Vytautas Landsbergis Addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations,--Doannents from the Baltic Region Statement by Baltic Mass Movements,--Speech by Edgar Savisaar, Leader of the Popular Front of Fstonia at "The Baltic Way" Demonstration on the Fstonian-Latvian Border,--CPSU Central Committee Statement on the Situation in the Soviet Baltic Republics,--Statement of the Baltic Council,--USSR Law on the Economic Autonomy of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic [SSR], the Latvian SSR, and the--Fstonian SSR,--USSR Congress of People's Deputies Resolution: "On the Political and Legal Assessment of the Soviet~Germany--Nonaggression Treaty of 1939," --Baltic Council Communique -- Agreement on Economic Cooperation by Latvia,--Lithuania, and Fstonia -- Resolution of the Popular Front of Fstonia, Popular Front--of Latvia, and Lithuanian Sajudis: "On the Continuing--Occupation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union," --Statement by the Baltic Council -- 4 Documents from the Soviet West--Introduction--Documents of Ukraine--Speech by Bori; Oleynik at USSR Writers' Union Board Plenum,--Report by Volodymyr V. Shcherbitskiy on Behalf of the Central Committee Politburo of the Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU) on the Progress of Restructuring -- Declaration of Principles of the Ukrainian Helsinki Union,--Statement of the Initiative Committee for the Restoration of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Church,--Report by M.S. Gorbachev to Donbass Miners,--Draft Program of the People's Movement of Ukraine for Restructuring (Rukh),--Appeal to the Citizens of the Ukrainian SSR and to All Ukrainians Living in Ukraine and Beyond by the Taras Shevchenko Ukrainian Language Society -- Speech by Volodymyr V. Shcherbitskiy, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine: 11 Advancing Restructuring More Energetically, Striving for Practical Results," --Declaration of Sovereignty of the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet,--Law on the Economic Independence of the Ukrainian SSR -- Appeal of the Ukrainian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium to Servicemen Performing Compulsory Service Who Are Citizens of the Ukrainian SSR,--Act of Declaration of the Independence of Ukraine,--Statement on Unity of the Ukrainian and Russian Republics,--Documents from Byelorussia --"To the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Comrade Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev," an Appeal by Byelorussian Writers,--Report by First Secretary of the Communist Party of Byelorussia [CPB], Yefrim Ye. Sokolov, to the Plenary--Session of the CPB Central Committee -- Report of the Governmental Commission Formed by the Byelorussian SSR Council of Ministers of 14June 1988,--Program of the Byelorussian People's Front for Perestroika-Rebirth,--The Electoral Platform of the Byelorussian People's Front: "I Vote for Byelorussia,"--Joint Statement of Sajudis and the Byelorussian People's Front,--Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Byelorussian SSR Supreme Soviet,--Documents from Moldavia--Televised Address by Semyon K. Grossu, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldavia [CPM] Central Committee: 11Time of Renewal Is Time for Responsible Action," --Draft Law of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic on the Status of the State Language of the Moldavian SSR,--Draft Law of the Moldavian SSR on the Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR,--Decree of the 13th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldavia: 110n the Sociopolitical Situation in the Republic and Tasks of Party Organizations for Realizing the Principles of the April 1989 Plenum--of the CPSU Central Committee,"--Address to the Republic's Population by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldavia and the Moldavian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium and Council of Ministers,--Resolution of the 25th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldavia: 110n the Sociopolitical--Situation; Interethnic Relations, and the Tasks of Party Organizations of the Republic Proceeding from the Decisions of the September Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee,"--Text of the Moldavian SSR Council of Ministers Resolutions on Registering Public Organizations,--Amendments to the Moldovan Constitution,--Moldovan Declaration of Sovereignty,--Program of the Second Congress of the Popular Front of Moldova,--Decree of the Supreme Soviet Presidium of the SSR of Moldova: .,On the Rulings of the 'First Congress'--of People's Deputies of All Levels from Territories--Densely Populated by the Gagauz,"--Decree of the Government of the SSR of Moldova on the Disbandment of the People's Movement"Gagauz Khalky,"--Decree of the SSR of Moldova Supreme Soviet on Certain Measures to Stabilize the Sociopolitical Situation in the--SSR of Moldova,--Proclamation of the Second Great National Assembly of the Popular Front of Moldova,--USSR Presidential Decree on Measures to Stabilize the Situation in Moldova,--The Independence Declaration of the Republic of Moldova,--5 Documents from the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic--Introduction--Manifesto of the National-Patriotic Front, "Pamyat,"--Election Platform of Boris Yeltsin,--Platform of the "Civic Action" Political Organization,--Message of Mikhail S. Gorbachev to the Congress of Peoples of the North -- Speech by Boris Yeltsin at the RSFSR Congress of People's Deputies,--Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the RSFSR Adopted by the Fll'St Congress of RSFSR People's Deputies,--Speech by Mikhail S. Gorbachev to the RSFSR Communist Party Conference,--"Appeal to the Communists and Peoples of Russia," Adopted by the RSFSR Communist Party,--Declaration of the Democratic Party of Russia,--Resolution of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet "On Privileges in the RSFSR,"--Decree of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet Presidium on Protection of the Economic Foundation of the Sovereignty of the RSFSR -- Presidential Decree of Mikhail S. Gorbachev Annulling the RSFSR's Resolution on Economic Sovereignty,--Statement of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet Presidium in Response to the Presidential Decree of Mikhail S. Gorbachev,--Resolution of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet on the Resignation of the USSR Council of Miniclters,--RSFSR Supreme Soviet Resolution on the Participation of RSFSR Citizem in Resolving Interethnic Conflicts Outside the RSFSR,--Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Yakut-Sakh SSR,--Appeal to the Citizem of Russia from the RSFSR Supreme Soviet,--Declaration of Sovereignty of the Buryat Soviet Socialist Republic,--Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Bashkir SSR,--Resolution of the USSR Supreme Soviet on the Speech--Delivered by Boris N. Yeltsin, Chairman of the RSFSR--Supreme Soviet, on Central Television -- Speech by Boris Yeltsin at the Third Extraordinary -- Congress of RSFSR People's Deputies -- Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR ,--on the Unlawful Introduction of a State of Emergency,--Resolution of the RSFSR Council of Ministers -- Declaration by the Leaders of Russia, Ukraine,--and Byelorussia on the Formation of a Commonwealth--of Independent States -- Declaration by Russia, Ukraine, and Byelorussia on--Economic Cooperatipn -- Accord on Commonwealth of Independent States -- 6 Documents from the Caucasus--Introduction--Documents of Georgia--Speech by Yegor K. Ligachev, Politburo Member and--Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, to a--Conference of Georgian Party, Soviet and--EconomicLeaders,--Appeal to Citizem of the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet--Socialist Republic by Abkhaz Public Figures -- Appeal by the Communist Party of Georgia [CPG] Central--Committee and the Georgian SSR Supreme Soviet--Presidium and Council of Ministers to the Republic's--Communists, Working People, and Youth -- Statement of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the--Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council--of Ministers of the USSR to the Victims of the--Georgian Violence -- Appeal of Mikhail S. Gorbachev to the Communists--and Workers of Georgia -- Speech by Eduard A. Shevardnadze, USSR Foreign--Minister and Politburo Member, to the Georgian--Communist Party Central Committee Plenum -- Statement of General I.N. Rodionov to the Congress of--People's Deputies on the Military Intervention--in 'Ibilisi,--Address by Vladislav G. Ardzinba, Director of the--Abkhaz Imtitute of Language, Literature, and History--Under the Georgian Academy of Sciences, to the--Congress of People's Deputies -- Resolution of the First Congress of Caucasian Mountain--Peoples -- Conclusions of the Georgian Supreme Soviet's--Coii\IIW;sion of Inquiry into the Events of 9 April1989--in Thilisi -- Manifesto of the Georgian People's Front, •National Accord"--Association,--Law of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on--Changes and Additions to the Constitution (Main Law)--of the Georgian SSR -- Georgian Supreme Soviet Decree on Questions of--Restoring National Military Formations -- Resolution of the Congress of USSR People's Deputies--on the Report of the Commission on the April1989--Events in Thilisi -- Speech by G.G. Gumbaridze, First Secretary of the--Communist Party of Georgia -- Declaration of the Georgian Liberation Movements -- Resolution of the Georgian SSR Supreme Soviet--"On Postponing the Elections of Deputies of the--Supreme Soviet and Deputies of the Local Soviets--of People's Deputies of the Georgian SSR," --Law of the Georgian SSR on Amendments to the--Constitution (Main Law) of the Georgian SSR,--Appeal by USSR President Mikhail S. Gorbachev:--"To the Georgian SSR Supreme Soviet and All the--Republic's Working People," --Appeal of the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium to the--Georgian SSR Supreme Soviet and the South Ossetian--Autonomous Oblast SoViet,--Appeal to USSR President Mikhall S. Gorbachev, the--USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium, and the Fourth--Congress of USSR People's Deputies, from the--South Ossetian Soviet of People's Deputies,--Speech by Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Chairman of the--Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Georgia,--Appeal by Georgian Writers to Members of the Creative--Intelligentsia of Russia,--Statement by the Georgian Popular Front on the 19 August--1991 Events in Moscow and on the Position of the--Republic of Georgia in These Events,--Message of President of the Georgian Republic--Zviad Gamsakhurdia to RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin--and to the Emergency Session of--RSFSR People's Deputies,Documents from Nagorno-Karabakh--Address to the Workers and People of Azerbaijan--and Armenia by Mikhail S. Gorbachev,--Declaration of Karen S. Demirchyan, First Secretary--of the Communist Party of Armenia [CPAr],--Appeal of the Central Committee of the Communist--Party of Azerbaijan [CP Az1 the Azerbaijani SSR--Supreme Soviet Presidium, and the Azerbaijani SSR--Council of Ministers,--Report by S.B. Tatliyev, Chairman of the Azerbaijani SSR--Supreme Soviet Presidium,--Appeal by the Central Committee of the Communist Party--of Armenia [CPAr], the Armenian SSR Supreme Soviet--Presidium, and the Armenian SSR Council of Ministers--to the Republic's Communists and Workers,--Address by Arkady I. Volskiy, CPSU Central--Committee and USSR Supreme Soviet Representative--to Nagomo-Karabakh,--Decision of the Armenian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium--Normalizing the Situation Created in the Republic as a--Result of the Incidents in the Nagomo-I

About the Authors

Charles F. Furtado

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HISTORY / General