Preterm infants grow poorly after birth and very commonly develop ex utero growth restriction (EUGR). However, the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in preterm infants must be weighed, and evidence addressing this warrants examination. Perinatal Growth and Nutrition explores the reasons for EUGR and the long-term effects on developmental outcome and on metabolic risks. It provides clear information on the risks and benefits of faster post-natal growth and catch-up growth in preterm infants and offers tools for better assessment of growth and earlier identification of faltering growth.
This book is divided into three sections. The first section covers advances in preterm infant growth standards, diagnosis and causes of EUGR, and assessments of preterm infant diets. The second section considers the extensive human literature on the effects of in utero and ex utero growth restriction and catch-up growth on long-term metabolic outcomes—such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiac disease—and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes including cognition. It also examines evidence for the effect of growth on these outcomes in term and preterm infants.
The final section of the book considers ways to reduce the incidence of EUGR in preterm infants and when EUGR does occur, to optimize catch-up growth. Topics include assessment of dietary requirements of the diverse population of preterm infants, examination of tools for prescribing nutrition to neonatal intensive care unit patients, consideration of whether to customize or generalize nutrient intake, and fortification of human milk. In addition, the last chapter proposes using a Z-score growth chart for improved interpretation of growth data.
Table of Contents
Section 1 Causes and Assessment of Ex Utero Growth Restriction in Preterm Infants
Growth Charts for Preterm Infants and Related Tools for Growth Monitoring
Tanis R. Fenton, PhD RD
Assessment of Short- and Medium-Term Outcomes in Preterm Infants
Nicholas D. Embleton, Matthew J. Hyde, and Claire Wood
Causes of Postnatal Growth Failure in Preterm Infants
E. Bertino, P. Di Nicola, L. Occhi, G. Prandi, and G. Gilli
Section 2 The Effects of In Utero and Ex Utero Growth in Term and Preterm Infants
Fetal and Postnatal Growth, and the Risks of Metabolic Syndrome in the AGA and SGA Term Infant
Ian J. Griffin
Effect of Postnatal Growth on the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in the Large for Gestational Age Term Infant
Rae-Chi Huang and Elizabeth A. Davis
Postnatal Growth Failure in Preterm Infants: Metabolic Outcomes
Richard J. Cooke and Ian J. Griffin
Postnatal Growth in Preterm Infants: Neurodevelopmental Effects
Ian J. Griffin and Jennifer Scoble
Section 3 Can We Be Better? Reducing Ex Utero Growth Restriction in Preterm Infants
Assessing Nutritional Requirements for Preterm Infants
Frank R. Greer
Meeting Nutritional Goals: Computer-Aided Prescribing
of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
Magnus Domellöf and Dirk Wackernagel
Customize Or Generalize? Or the Imperfect Art of Feeding Preterm Infants
Ekhard E. Ziegler
Customized Fortification of Human Milk
Sharon Groh-Wargo and Jae H. Kim
Mathematical Description of Postnatal Growth: Z-scores and Statistical Control Process Analysis
Ian J. Griffin
Ian Griffin was born in the United Kingdom. He studied medicine at Leeds University before training in pediatrics in Glasgow. He has been involved in research on the growth and nutrition of preterm infants since the 1990s, and was involved in a large study of post-discharge nutrition in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the U.K. before moving to the U.S. He was a member of the neonatal faculty at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, before moving to the University of California–Davis in Sacramento, California in 2008. His research interests include the growth and nutrition of newborn infants, and mineral requirements of preterm infants. He has spoken at meetings across the world, and is the author of over 80 peer-reviewed publications.