Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economics, Fifth Edition, 5th Edition (Hardback) book cover

Petroleum Refining

Technology and Economics, Fifth Edition, 5th Edition

By Mark J. Kaiser, James H. Gary, Glenn E. Handwerk

CRC Press

488 pages | 134 B/W Illus.

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Petroleum refiners must face billion-dollar investments in equipment in order to meet ever-changing environmental requirements. Because the design and construction of new processing units entail several years’ lead time, refiners are reluctant to commit these dollars for equipment that may no longer meet certain conditions when the units come on stream.

Written by experts with both academic and professional experience in refinery operation, design, and evaluation, Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics, Fifth Edition is an essential textbook for students and a vital resource for engineers. This latest edition of a bestselling text provides updated data and addresses changes in refinery feedstock, product distribution, and processing requirements resulting from federal and state legislation.

Providing a detailed overview of today’s integrated fuels refinery, the book discusses each major refining process as they relate to topics such as feedstock preparation, operating costs, catalysts, yields, finished product properties, and economics. It also contains end-of-chapter problems and an ongoing case study.

Table of Contents


Refinery Processes and Operations

Historic Overview

Product Demand and Supply

U.S. Statistics

World Statistics

Industry Characteristics

Refinery Economics

Cost Estimation

Refinery Complexity

Refinery Flow Scheme and Chapter Outline


Refinery Products

Low-Boiling Products


Gasoline Specifications

Distillate Fuels

Residual Fuel Oils


Refinery Feedstocks

Crude Oil Properties

Composition of Petroleum

Crudes Suitable for Asphalt Manufacture


Crude Distillation

Desalting Crude Oils

Atmospheric Topping Unit

Vacuum Distillation

Auxiliary Equipment

Crude Distillation Unit Products

Case-Study Problem: Crude Units


Coking and Thermal Processes

Types, Properties, and Uses of Petroleum Coke

Process Description—Delayed Coking

Operation—Delayed Coking

Process Description—Flexicoking

Process Description—Fluid Coking

Yields from Flexicoking and Fluid Coking

Capital Costs and Utilities for Flexicoking and Fluid Coking


Case-Study Problem: Delayed Coker


Catalytic Cracking

Fluidized Bed Catalytic Cracking

New Designs for Fluidized Bed Catalytic Cracking Units

Cracking Reactions

Cracking of Paraffins

Olefin Cracking

Cracking of Naphthenic Hydrocarbons

Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cracking

Cracking Catalysts

FCC Feed Pretreating

Process Variables

Heat Recovery

Yield Estimation

Capital and Operating Costs

Case-Study Problem: Catalytic Cracker


Catalytic Hydrocracking

Hydrocracking Reactions

Feed Preparation

The Hydrocracking Process

Hydrocracking Catalyst

Process Variables

Hydrocracking Yields

Investment and Operating Costs

Modes of Hydrocracker Operation

Case-Study Problem: Hydrocracker


Hydroprocessing and Resid Processing

Composition of Vacuum Tower Bottoms

Processing Options


Expanded-Bed Hydrocracking Processes

Moving-Bed Hydroprocessors

Solvent Extraction

Summary of Resid Processing Operations



Hydrotreating Catalysts

Aromatics Reduction


Process Variables

Construction and Operating Costs

Case-Study Problem: Hydrotreaters

Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization


Feed Preparation

Catalytic Reforming Processes

Reforming Catalyst

Reactor Design

Yields and Costs


Capital and Operating Costs

Isomerization Yields

Case-Study Problem: Naphtha Hydrotreater, Catalytic Reformer, and Isomerization Unit

Alkylation and Polymerization

Alkylation Reactions

Process Variables

Alkylation Feedstocks

Alkylation Products


Hydrofluoric Acid Processes

Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Processes

Comparison of Processes

Alkylation Yields and Costs

Safety Issues


Case-Study Problem: Alkylation and Polymerization

Product Blending

Reid Vapor Pressure

Octane Blending

Blending for Other Properties

Case-Study Problem: Gasoline Blending

Octane Calculations for Pool Gasoline

Case-Study Problem: Diesel and Jet Fuel Blending

Supporting Processes

Hydrogen Production and Purification

Gas Processing Unit

Acid Gas Removal

Sulfur Recovery Processes

Ecological Considerations in Petroleum Refining

Wastewater Treatment

Control of Atmospheric Pollution

Noise Level Control

Case-Study Problem: Saturated Gas Recovery, Amine, and Sulfur Recovery Units

Refinery Economics and Planning

Linear Programming Overview

Refinery Linear Programming Models

Economics and Planning Applications

Lubricating Oil Blending Stocks

Lube Oil Processing

Propane Deasphalting

Viscosity Index Improvement and Solvent Extraction

Viscosity Index Improvement and Hydrocracking



Finishing by Clay Contacting

Environmental Impacts

Petrochemical Feedstocks

Aromatics Production

Unsaturate Production

Saturated Paraffins

Additives Production from Refinery Feedstocks

Use of Alcohols and Ethers

Ether Production Reactions

Ether Production Processes


Costs for Ether Production

Production of Isobutylene

Commercial Dehydrogenation Processes

Houdry’s CATOFIN

ConocoPhillips Petroleum’s Star


Snamprogetti Yarsintez Process

Costs to Produce Isobutylene from Isobutane

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists Nomenclature

Isooctene and Isooctane Production

Cost Estimation

Rule-of-Thumb Estimates

Cost-Curve Estimates

Major Equipment Factor Estimates

Definitive Estimates

Summary Form for Cost Estimates

Storage Facilities

Land and Storage Requirements

Steam Systems

Cooling Water Systems

Other Utility Systems

Application of Cost Estimation Techniques

Economic Evaluation


Return on Original Investment

Payout Time

Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return

Case-Study Problem: Economic Evaluation

Case-Study Problem: Economic Solution

Appendix A: Definitions of Refining Terms

Appendix B: Physical Properties

Appendix C: U.S. Bureau of Mines Routine Analyses of Selected Crude Oils

Appendix D: Economic Evaluation Example Problem

Appendix E: Photographs



*Most chapters include Problems, Notes, and Additional Reading sections

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels