Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids  book cover
2nd Edition

Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

ISBN 9781439852231
Published December 18, 2014 by CRC Press
466 Pages 248 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Developed in conjunction with several oil companies using experimental data for real reservoir fluids, Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids introduces industry standard methods for modeling the phase behavior of petroleum reservoir fluids at different stages in the process. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, this book discusses sampling, characterization, compositional analyses, and equations of state used to simulate various pressure–volume–temperature (PVT) properties of reservoir fluids.

Featuring new figures, references, and updates throughout, this Second Edition:

  • Adds simulation results for PVT data obtained with the PC-SAFT equation
  • Describes routine and EOR PVT experiments with enhanced procedural detail
  • Expands coverage of sampling, compositional analyses, and measurement of PVT data

Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, Second Edition supplies a solid understanding of the phase behavior of the various fluids present in a petroleum reservoir, providing practical knowledge essential for achieving optimal design and cost-effective operations in a petroleum processing plant.

Table of Contents

Preface, 2nd Edition

About the Authors

Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

Reservoir Fluid Constituents

Properties of Reservoir Fluid Constituents

Phase Envelopes

Classification of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids


Sampling, Quality Control, and Compositional Analyses

Fluid Sampling

Quality Control of Fluid Samples

Bottom Hole/Wellhead Samples

Separator Samples

Compositional Analyses

Gas Chromatography

TBP Analysis

Reservoir Fluid Composition from Bottom Hole Sample

Reservoir Fluid Composition from Separator Samples

Mud-Contaminated Samples


PVT Experiments

Routine PVT Experiments

Constant-Mass Expansion Experiment

Differential Liberation Experiment

Constant-Volume Depletion Experiment

Separator Test

Viscosity Experiment

EOR PVT Experiments

Solubility Swelling Test

Equilibrium Contact Experiment

Multi-Contact Experiment

Slim Tube Experiment

Gas Revaporization Experiment


Equations of State

Van Der Waals Equation

Redlich–Kwong Equation

Soave–Redlich–Kwong Equation

Peng–Robinson Equation

Peneloux Volume Correction

Other Cubic Equations of State

Equilibrium Calculations

Nonclassical Mixing Rules

PC–SAFT Equation

Other Equations of State


C7+ Characterization

Classes of Components

Defined Components

C7+ Fractions

Plus Fraction

Binary Interaction Coefficients



Mixing of Multiple Fluids

Characterizing of Multiple Compositions to the Same Pseudocomponents

Heavy Oil Compositions

Heavy Oil Reservoir Fluid Compositions

Characterization of Heavy Oil Mixture

PC-SAFT Characterization Procedure


Flash and Phase Envelope Calculations

Pure Component Vapor Pressures from Cubic Equations of State

Mixture Saturation Points from Cubic Equations of State

Flash Calculations

Stability Analysis

Solving the Flash Equations

Multiphase PT-Flash

Three Phase PT-Flash with a Pure Water Phase

Other Flash Specifications

Phase Envelope Calculations

Phase Identification


PVT Simulation

Constant Mass Expansion

Constant Volume Depletion

Differential Liberation

Separator Test

Solubility Swelling Test

Pvt Simulations with PC-SAFT EOS

What to Expect from A PVT Simulation


Physical Properties



Internal Energy


Heat Capacity

Joule–Thomson Coefficient

Velocity of Sound

Example Calculations


Regression to Experimental PVT Data

Shortcomings of Parameter Regression

Volume Translation Parameter

Tc, Pc, and Acentric Factor of C7+ Fractions

Regressing on Coefficients in Property Correlations

Object Functions and Weight Factors

Example of Regression for Gas Condensate

Tuning on Single Pseudocomponent Properties

Near-Critical Fluids

Fluids Characterized to the Same Pseudocomponents


Original Reservoir Fluid Composition from Depleted Sample

Numerical Example

Depleted Oil and Shale Reservoir Fluid Samples


Transport Properties


Corresponding States Viscosity Models

Adaptation of Corresponding States Viscosity Model to Heavy Oils

Lohrenz–Bray–Clark Method

Other Viscosity Models

Viscosity Data and Simulation Results

Thermal Conductivity

Data and Simulation Results for Thermal Conductivity

Gas/Oil Surface Tension

Models for Interfacial Tension

Data and Simulation Results for Interfacial Tensions

Diffusion Coefficients


Wax Formation

Experimental Studies of Wax Precipitation

Thermodynamic Description of Melting of a Pure Component

Modeling of Wax Precipitation

Activity Coefficient Approach

Ideal Solid Solution Wax Models

Wax PT Flash Calculations

Viscosity of Oil–Wax Suspensions

Wax Inhibitors



Experimental Techniques for Studying Asphaltene Precipitation

Quantification of Amount of Asphaltenes

Detection of Asphaltene Onset Points

Experimental Data for Asphaltene Onset Pressures

Asphaltene Models

Models Based on Cubic Equation of State

Polymer Solution Models

Thermodynamic–Colloidal Model


Other Asphaltene Models

Asphaltene Tar Mat Calculation


Gas Hydrates

Types of Hydrates

Modeling of Hydrate Formation

Hydrate Inhibitors

Hydrate Simulation Results

Hydrate P/T Flash Calculations

Hydrate Fugacities

Flash Simulation Technique


Compositional Variations with Depth

Theory of Isothermal Reservoir

Depth Gradient Calculations for Isothermal Reservoirs

Theory of Non-isothermal Reservoir

Absolute Enthalpies

Examples: Calculations on Reservoir Fluids


Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Three-Component Mixtures

MMP of Multicomponent Mixtures

First Contact MMP

Tie Line Approach

Immiscible Systems

Cell-to-Cell Simulation


Formation Water and Hydrate Inhibitors

Hydrocarbon–Water Phase Equilibrium Models

Approach of Kabadi and Danner

Asymmetric Mixing Rules

Huron and Vidal Mixing Rule

Phase Equilibria for Hydrocarbon–Salt Water

Association Models

Experimental Hydrocarbon–Water Phase Equilibrium Data

Water Properties

Viscosity of Water–Inhibitor Mixtures

Properties of Salt Water

Oil–Water Emulsion Viscosities

Phase Envelopes of Hydrocarbon–Aqueous Mixtures


Scale Precipitation

Criteria for Salt Precipitation

Equilibrium Constants

Activity Coefficients

Solution Procedure

Example Calculations


Appendix: Fundamentals on Phase Equilibrium

First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

Fundamental Thermodynamic Relations

Phase Equilibrium

Fugacities and Fugacity Coefficients


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Karen Schou Pedersen holds a Ph.D in liquid physics from the Department of Physical Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. She has worked as a research associate at the Physics Department at Edinburgh University and at the nuclear research center, Institut Laue-Langevin, in Grenoble. She has been the managing director of Calsep A/S since 1984 and has been responsible for several R & D projects within reservoir fluid modeling and flow assurance. She is the author of more than 50 publications on oil and gas properties.

Peter L. Christensen holds a Ph.D from the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. He started his career in oil and gas technology at Risø National Laboratories in Denmark focusing on studies in the fields of reservoir simulation and PVT. He has been an associate professor at the Technical University of Denmark and lectured in thermodynamics, unit operations, and oil and gas technology. He is currently a senior principal consultant at Calsep A/S.

Jawad Azeem Shaikh holds an M.Sc in petroleum technology from the University of Pune in India. He has been the regional manager and principal consultant of Calsep FZ-LLC in Dubai since 2009 and has been responsible for the project including lab coordination, designing of enhanced oil recovery studies, and equation of state modeling work of oil and gas properties. Before joining Calsep, he was an advanced studies supervisor for Core Laboratories International B.V. He has authored several papers and articles on sampling, PVT lab work, and oil and gas properties.


"This book offers a very good balance between experiment and theory and is written in a style … that is practical and easy to comprehend. The chapters on organic and inorganic solid deposition will be of great use for professionals that are involved in flow assurance. … The approach taken by the authors is very logical, i.e., starting with the basics of petroleum chemistry to scale deposition covering all aspects of petroleum reservoir fluids that one needs to know. Enhanced experimental procedures and analysis of EOR PVT data are great new additions to the Second Edition. … Karen and co-authors, with their rich experience and expertise, are perhaps some of the most authoritative and widely recognized professionals in the area of petroleum reservoir fluids, and a book written by them on what they practice is the best thing one can ask for. Therefore, reservoir engineers in industry as well as those in academia will benefit immensely from this book."
—Abhijit Dandekar, University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA

"The big advantage of this book for me is that it has a dedicated chapter covering fluid sampling, sample quality control, and compositional analysis. The description of the way reservoir fluid composition is derived from the compositions of individual sub-samples is especially useful, as I am not aware of it being covered in such detail in other texts. … The book contents give very good coverage of a broad range of phase behavior concepts. … It is refreshing to see sampling techniques covered in good detail."
—John M. Williams, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE