Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials

1st Edition

By S. Anantha Ramakrishna, Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk

CRC Press

440 pages | 140 B/W Illus.

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Ever since the first experimental demonstration was reported in 2000, the interest in metamaterials and left-handed media that exhibit a negative refractive index has increased exponentially. Surveying this explosive growth, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials covers the fundamental physical principles and emerging engineering applications of structured electromagnetic metamaterials that yield a negative refraction as well as other unexpected physical properties. It provides detailed explanations on the history, development, and main achievements of metamaterials.

Making it easy to access relevant, up-to-date information on the field, the authors bring together the most important and influential papers related to metamaterials. They present the principles of negative refraction and compare the uniqueness of novel metamaterials with other media that exhibit similar properties. The book discusses the design, optimization, and testing of structured metamaterials as well as applications of metamaterials at frequencies ranging from radio wave to optical. It also explores novel concepts and phenomena, such as the perfect lens for super-resolution imaging, hyper lenses that couple the near-field to radiative modes, electromagnetic cloaking and invisibility, and near-field optical imaging.

Connecting theoretical ideas to recent experimental techniques and results, this state-of-the-art book enables an understanding of the basic principles of and research contributions to metamaterials with negative refractive index and their electromagnetic properties.


The book has been very carefully produced, with the mathematics and physics accurately represented. … This is an excellent introduction to a fascinating class of materials. All aspects of the interaction of negative refractive index materials with electromagnetic materials are covered, and detailed theoretical derivations are linked with clear discussions of practical issues. It is a book that will be of value both to a newcomer to the field and as a concise reference work for the more experienced researcher.

—Dr. A.H. Harker, University College London, in Contemporary Physics, 2010, 1

Table of Contents


General historical perspective

The concept of metamaterials

Modeling the material response

Phase velocity and group velocity

Metamaterials and homogenization procedure

Metamaterials and Homogenization of Composites

The homogenization hypothesis

Limitations and consistency conditions

Forward problem

Inverse problems: retrieval and constitutive parameters

Homogenization from averaging the internal fields

Generalization to anisotropic and bianisotropic media

Designing Metamaterials with Negative Material Parameters

Negative dielectric materials

Metamaterials with negative magnetic permeability

Metamaterials with negative refractive index

Chiral metamaterials

Bianisotropic metamaterials

Active and nonlinear metamaterials

Negative Refraction and Photonic Bandgap Materials

Photonic crystals and bandgap materials

Band diagrams and iso-frequency contours

Negative refraction and flat lenses with photonic crystals

Negative refraction versus collimation or streaming

Media with e < 0 and µ < 0: Theory and Properties

Origins of negative refraction

Choice of the wave-vector and its consequences

Anisotropic and chiral media

Energy and Momentum in Negative Refractive Index Materials

Causality and energy density in frequency dispersive media

Electromagnetic energy in left-handed media

Momentum density, momentum flow, and transfer in media with negative material parameters

Limit of plane waves and small losses

Traversal of pulses in materials with negative material parameters

Plasmonics of Media with Negative Material Parameters

Surface electromagnetic modes in negative refractive materials

Waveguides made of negative index materials

Negative refraction of surface plasmons

Plasmonic properties of structured metallic surfaces

Surface waves at the interfaces of nonlinear media

Veselago’s Lens Is a Perfect Lens

Near-field information and diffraction limit

Mathematical demonstration of the perfect lens

Limitations due to real materials and imperfect NRMs

Issues with numerical simulations and time evolution

Negative stream of energy with a perfect lens configuration

Effects of spatial dispersion

Designing Super Lenses

Overcoming the limitations of real materials

Generalized perfect lens theorem

The perfect lens in other geometries

Brief Report on Electromagnetic Invisibility

Concept of electromagnetic invisibility

Excluding electromagnetic fields

Cloaking with localized resonances

Appendix A: The Fresnel Coefficients for Reflection and Refraction

Appendix B: The Dispersion and Fresnel Coefficients for a Bianisotropic Medium

Appendix C: The Reflection and Refraction of Light across a Material Slab



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Optics