Plane and Geodetic Surveying: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Plane and Geodetic Surveying

2nd Edition

By Aylmer Johnson

CRC Press

276 pages | 88 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-06-04
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Description

Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends together theory and practice, conventional techniques and satellite-based methods, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying. It gives detailed guidance on how and when the principal surveying instruments (total stations, levels and navigational satellite receivers) should be used.

It fully and clearly explains the concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful and reliable results. It offers rigorous explanations of the theoretical background to surveying, while at the same time providing a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice. The book also contains an accompanying least square adjustment program that is available for free download.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Revises and updates the text to reflect recent developments in satellite navigation, laser scanners and total stations
  • Provides a more rigorous treatment of how to calculate and use mean earth curvature in geodetic geometry
  • Includes substantial additional information on precise levelling, spherical and ellipsoidal geometry, trigonometric heighting and setting out
  • Offers a fuller description of mapping systems, including the State Plane Coordinate System

This book is essential for all students of surveying and for practitioners who need a ‘stand-alone’ text for further reading.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Aim And Scope

Classification Of Surveys

The Structure Of This Book

General Principles Of Surveying

Errors

Redundancy

Stiffness

Adjustment

Planning And Record Keeping

Principal Surveying Activities

Establishing Control Networks

Mapping

Setting Out

Resectioning

Deformation Monitoring

Angle Measurement

The Surveyor’s Compass

The Clinometer

The Total Station

Making Observations

Checks On Permanent Adjustments

Distance Measurement

General

Tape Measurements

Optical Methods (Tachymetry)

Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)

Ultrasonic Methods

GNSS

Levelling

Theory

The Instrument

Technique

Booking

Permanent Adjustments

Precise Levelling

Contours

Levelling Over Longer Distances

Satellite Surveying

Introduction

How GPS Works

Differential GNSS (DGNSS)

Using DGNSS In The Field

Redundancy

Processing GNSS Results

The International Terrestrial Reference System

Further Details Of GPS And Galileo

Enhancement Of GNSS

Geoids, Ellipsoids And Co-Ordinate Transforms

Definition Of The Geoid

The Need For An Ellipsoid

Orthometric Heights And Bench Marks

Geometry Of The Ellipse

Transformations Between Ellipsoids

ETRS And The International Terrestrial Reference System

Further Properties Of Ellipsoids

Map Projections

The Need For Projections

Useful Properties Of Projections

Common Classes Of Projections

Individual Projections

Distortions In Conformal Projections

Grids

Bearings On Grids

The Realisation Of The British National Grid

Co-Ordinate Systems For Engineering Works In Britain

Reduction Of Distance Measurements

Correction For The Curvature Of The Ellipsoid

Correction For Light Curvature

Corrections To Slope Distance Measurements

Final Calculation Of Reduced Distance

Slope Distances

Summary

Adjustment Of Observations

Introduction

The Bowditch Adjustment

Least-Squares Adjustment

Error Ellipses

Least-Squares Adjustment By Computer

Interpreting Least-Squares Results

Summary

Trigonometric Heighting

Introduction

Methods For Trigonometric Heighting

Procedure For Reciprocal Vertical Measurements

Scheme Of Observations

Calculations

Accuracy Of Reciprocal Vertical Angles

Appendices

About the Author

Aylmer Johnson is a senior lecturer in the Cambridge University Engineering Department and a Fellow of Clare College.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC005000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC036000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems