Plant Sanitation for Food Processing and Food Service  book cover
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2nd Edition

Plant Sanitation for Food Processing and Food Service




ISBN 9781466577695
Published December 16, 2014 by CRC Press
1386 Pages - 60 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Comprehensive and accessible, this book presents fundamental principles and applications that are essential for food production and food service safety. It provides basic, practical information on the daily operations in a food processing plant and reviews some of the industry's most recent developments. Formerly titled Food Plant Sanitation, this second edition discusses nine additional food processing industries and contains 14 new chapters. Among others, new topics include sanitation in food transportation and sanitation of fresh produce in retail establishments.

Table of Contents

BACKGROUND, LAWS, AND REGULATIONS
Using This Book
Introduction
Food Industry Classifications
Food Plant Sanitation: An Overview
Laws, Regulations, and Enforcement
Sanitation and Safety: Principles and Applications
Food Commodities Manufacturing
Premises
Language Format
Terms and Jargons
Prerequisites
Author’s Perspectives

U.S. Food Laws and Regulations: An Overview
Introduction
Food and Drug Administration
U.S. Department of Agriculture
National Marine Fishery Service
Environmental Protection Agency
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tax and Trade Bureau
State and Local Governments

Enforcement and Food Plant Sanitation
Background
Data on Insanitary Practices
Recalls
Warning Letters
Enforcement Examples

FOOD HAZARDS, DEFECTS, CONTAMINANTS, SECURITY, AND IRRADIATION
Primer on Food Hazards and Foodborne Diseases
Introduction
Hazards: An Overview
Foodborne Illness: An Overview
Foodborne Disease Classified by Symptoms

Biological Hazards in Food
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Pathogens
Biological Agents, Foodborne Diseases, and Clinical Profile

Chemical Hazards in Food
Introduction
Added versus Natural Toxic Substances
Use of Toxic or Poisonous Substances in Food Establishments
Diseases and Symptoms
Unintentional Chemical Contaminants in Food
Intentional Chemical Contaminants in Food
Natural Toxicants

Physical Hazards in Food
Foreign Objects: Classification
Hazardous Foreign Objects
Nonhazardous Foreign Objects
Food Tampering with a Foreign Object
Regulatory Guidance
Metal Fragments
Control of Metal Inclusion
Determine the Significance of Potential Hazard from Metal Inclusion
Identify Critical Control Points
Develop a Control Strategy for Metal Fragments
Control Strategy Example 1
Control Strategy Example 2
Glass Fragments in Juice
Foreign Physical Materials in Meat and Poultry

Food Hazards: Food Filth and Extraneous Matter, Deleterious Contaminants, and Food Security
Introduction
Food Filth and Extraneous Matter
Food Defects
Deleterious or Poisonous Contaminants in Human Food and Feed
Food Security
Example: Defects in Fresh Produce

Sanitation and Regulatory System
Food Irradiation: Regulatory Requirements
Food and Drug Administration Regulations
Radiation and Radiation Sources
Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods
Food Safety and Inspection Service

GMP and Food Plant Sanitation
Introduction
FDA Sanitation Requirements
Food Safety Problems and Definitions
Tables

Sanitation: Establishment Grounds and Facilities
FDA versus FSIS
Grounds and Pest Management
Establishment Construction
Pest Control

Personnel and Equipment Sanitation
Personnel
Cleanliness
Clothing
Disease Control
Supervision, Education, and Training
Equipment and Utensils
Equipment and Utensils: Food Preparation and Food Service

Sanitation Operations, Facilities, and Controls
Introduction
Part A: Sanitary Operations
Part B: Sanitary Facilities and Controls

Processes, Storage, and Transport in a Food Establishment
Introduction
Raw Materials and Other Ingredients
Manufacturing Operations
Establishment’s Responsibilities
Compliance Verification
FDA Guidance
FSIS Scenarios
Storage, Warehousing, and Transports
Violations

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
Introduction
Objectives
Sanitation Controls and SSOP
Development of SSOPS
Monitoring of SSOP
Maintenance of SSOP
SSOP Corrective Actions
SSOP Recordkeeping

HACCP Systems
Background Information
Principles and Applications
Pathogen Reduction
FSIS HACCP Plan for Beef Slaughter Process

Cleaning, Sanitizing, and Pest Management
Cleaning and Sanitizing a Food Plant
Introduction
General Considerations in Sanitation and Cleaning
Fundamentals of Cleaning
Cleaning Methods
Sanitizing
Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning of Food Equipment
Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning Food Equipment

Pests Control in a Food Plant
Introduction
Insect Control
Rodent Control
Safety in Handling Pesticides

Food Processing Establishments
FDA Food Establishment Inspection
Introduction
Food Establishment Files
Preparation, References, and Records
Personnel
Plants and Grounds
Raw Materials
Equipment and Utensils
Manufacturing Process
Sanitation
Distribution
Federal, State, and Local Inspection
Food Standards
Pesticides

Sanitation of Food Processing Equipment
General Considerations
Materials for Construction and Repair
Design and Construction
Cleanability
Water Usage
Specialized Equipment
Equipment Location and Installation
Maintenance and Operation
Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils
Sanitization of Equipment and Utensils
Some Suggestions for Difficult-to-Clean Equipment
Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning and Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning
Protection of Clean Items
Example: Sanitation and Commercial Deli Slicers
Conclusion

Food Allergens
Introduction
Allergens and Food Labeling
Compliance Policy Guide
Guidance on Inspections of Firms Producing Food Products Susceptible to Contamination with Allergenic Ingredients
FSIS: Allergens, Meat, and Poultry
Allergens Risks Management System
Allergens Hazard and Processing Fish and Fishery Products
Nut Allergy, Anaphylaxis, and Deaths

Bakery Products: Sanitation and Safety
Sanitation System
Standards for Bakery Products in the United States
Biological Hazards: Time–Temperature Control
Bakery Establishment and Sanitation
Establishment Inspections for Bakery Products, Doughs, and Bakery Mixes
Custard and Cream Fillings for Pastry

Sanitation and Safety of Manufacturing: Soft Drinks, Bottled Water, and Ice
Introduction
Food Sanitation System
HACCP
Bottled Water
Soda Beverages
FDA Inspection for Soft Drinks Establishments
FDA Inspection for Bottled Water Establishments
Ice Manufacturing
FDA Inspection Form

Regulatory Requirements for the Production of Distilled Spirits in the United States
Introduction
Laws and Regulations
Coloring/Flavoring/Blending Materials
What a Distilled Spirits Label Tells You

Cheese Processing Plants: Safety and Inspection
Introduction
Sanitation System
Establishment Processing Cheese
Establishment Processing Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products
FDA Inspection

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Confectionery
Background Introduction
HACCP
Operations and Preventive Practices
FDA Standards of Identities
Candy without Chocolate, Candy Specialties, and Chewing Gum: Establishment Inspection
Chocolate and Cocoa Products Establishment Inspection
Alcohol
Lead
FDA Compliance Policies for Some Confectionery or Related Products

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Condiments
Product Descriptions
Sanitation System
HACCP
Identity and Definitions
FDA Regulatory Action Guidance for Selected Condiments
FDA Analytical Methods
Establishment Inspection

Guide to Inspections of Dairy Product Plants
Sanitation System
Dairy Processing Plants
Establishment Inspection

Sanitation and Safety of Eggs and Egg Products
Introduction
Food Safety Rule
FDA Refrigeration and Retail Shell Eggs Distribution
FDA Eggs Processing Establishment Inspection
FDA CPG: Eggs and Egg Products Frozen Adulteration Involving Decomposition
SE Outbreak in Shell Eggs
FDA 483 Inspection

Sanitation Requirements for Frozen Food Establishments
Introduction
Food Sanitation System
Temperatures
General Plant Requirements
Plant Layout
Plant Construction
Lighting; Ventilation
Frozen Food Processing Equipment Categories
Frozen Food Processing Equipment For Manufacture
Operating Practices
Transportation
Warehousing
Retail
Packaged Ice
Preordered Frozen Foods
Precooked Foods and Establishment Inspection
Glossary
Inspection Checklist for Frozen Food Lockers

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Frozen Desserts
FDA Product Standards
Sanitation System
Frozen Dessert Processing Plants
Incoming Materials
Operational Considerations
Plant Systems
Risks Analysis for Selected Special Operations
Criteria in an Inspection Form

Grains and Grain Products Processing: Sanitation and Inspection
Introduction
Sanitation System
USDA Federal Grain Inspection Service
Grain Processing
Elevators
Flour Milling
Cereal Flours and Products
Pasta

Establishment Inspection and Safety Control Measures for Processing Nuts
Introduction
Sanitation System
FDA: Standards, Guidance Documents, and CPG
FDA Establishment Inspections for Tree Nuts
Peanuts and Peanut Butter
Peanuts: Establishment Inspection
FDA CPG Affecting Nuts and Related Matters
FDA Recommendation: Salmonella and Products with Peanut- or Pistachio-Derived Ingredients
Peanut Butter Disease Outbreaks: A Case Study

HACCP for Seafood Processing
Background Information
FDA HACCP for Seafood
NOAA Voluntary Inspection Programs
Sanitation of Individual Seafood

Sanitation and Safety for the Manufacture of Preserves, Syrup, Honey, and Related Products
Sanitation System
FDA Preserves and Related Products
Honey
Syrup
USDA Standards and Grades

Fresh Produce and Processed Fruits and Vegetables
Produce Sanitation and Safety
Background Information
FDA Guidance for Fresh Produce
Fresh-Cut Produce
Guide to Produce Farm Investigations
Guide to Traceback of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Implicated in Epidemiological Investigations
Tomatoes: Safety Practices for Vegetable Commodities
Tomatoes: Open-Field Production

Sanitation and Safety of Processing Fruits and Fruit Juices
Introduction
Product Standards and Grades
Time/Temperature Factors
FDA’s Fruit Juice HACCP
FDA Establishment Inspections

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Pickles and Sauerkraut
Sanitation Premises
Acidified Foods
Pickles Manufacture
Pickles and Relish: FDA Analytical Methods
Pickles: FDA Establishment Inspection
Canned Sauerkraut
USDA: Sauerkraut Inspection
Warning Letter

Sanitation and Safety of Processing Vegetables
Food Sanitation System
HACCP
Product Standards and Grades
Time–Temperature Factors
Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Olives
Food Defect Action Levels for Vegetables and Vegetable Products

Meat and Poultry Sanitation
Regulatory Requirements in the Processing of Meat and Poultry in the United States
Introduction
Current Laws, Regulations, and Jurisdiction
Sanitation Standards
HACCP Systems
Hazards
Slaughter
Raw Product, Not Ground
Mechanically Separated Product
Raw Product: Ground
Heat Treated but Not Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable
Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable
Product with Secondary Inhibitors: Not Shelf Stable
Not Heat Treated: Shelf Stable
Heat Treated: Shelf Stable
Thermally Processed: Commercially Sterile
Application

HACCP Model for Processing Ground Meat
Hazard Analysis of the Raw Ground Process
Intervention Treatments for Meat Parts and Comminuted Meat
Guidance for Minimizing Impact associated with Food Safety Hazard in Raw Ground Meat

HACCP Model for Processing Raw Poultry
Introduction
Generic Model for Poultry Slaughter
Generic HACCP Model for Irradiated, Raw Meat and Poultry Products

Food Transportation and Warehousing
Food Transportation: Sanitation, Safety, and Security
Background Information
Problems and Preventive Controls
Food Safety and Security Concerns
Guidance for Food Safety Measures
Guidance for Food Security Measures
Guidance for Specific Modes of Transportation
Establishment, Maintenance, and Availability of Records

Warehousing Sanitation and Safety
Introduction
Basic Requirements for Sanitation in a Food Processing Plant
Procedures and Controls
Personnel
Implementation Plan
Check Points and Additional Guides
Case Study: Inspecting Incoming Food Materials and RawIngredients
FDA CPG: Food Storage and Warehousing-Adulteration-Filth
FSIS-USDA: Food Security in a Warehouse
FDA Warning Letters for Deficiencies in Food Storage Warehouses
An FDA Inspection Report Form

Food Service
Primer on Sanitation and Safety in the Food Service Industries
Retail and Food Service Industries
Guides to Regulators and Operators
Retail and Food Service Industries: HACCP
Food Safety Plan and HACCP
Hazard Analysis
Determining Risk Factors in Process Flows
Developing a Food Safety System
Procedural Step 1: Develop Prerequisite Programs
Procedural Step 2: Group Your Menu Items/Products
Procedural Step 3: Conduct a Hazard Analysis
Procedural Step 4: Implement Control Measures in Prerequisite Programsor at CCPS in Your HACCP Plans and Establish Critical Limits
Common Operational Steps Used in Retail and Food Service
Procedural Step 5: Establish Monitoring Procedures
Procedural Step 6: Develop Corrective Actions
Procedural Step 7: Conduct Ongoing Verification
Procedural Step 8: Keep Records
Procedural Step 9: Conduct Periodic Validation
Conclusion
Sample HACCP Tables

Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Restaurants
Introduction
Food Care
Food Service Personnel
Equipment and Utensils
Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage of Equipment, Utensils,and Cleaning Gear
Sanitary Facilities and Controls
Construction and Maintenance of Physical Facilities
Special Food Service Sanitation

Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Retail Food Service Industries
Introduction
Food Management
Personnel
Equipment and Utensils
Equipment and Utensils: Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage
Sanitary Facilities and Controls
Physical Facilities: Construction and Maintenance
Reminder

Sanitation and Food Safety for Public Conveyances (Land, Air, Sea) in theUnited States
FDA Regulations and Conveyance Sanitation
CDC and Food Safety in Cruise Ship
Personnel
Food
Equipment and Utensils
Warewashing
Poisonous and Toxic Materials
Facilities

Food Workers Safety
Food Establishment Classification and Occupational Hazards
Introduction
Food Establishment Classification
Manufacturing Plants and Workers’ Hazard Analysis

eTool for the Safety of Workers in Processing Poultry
Introduction
Contents of eTool for Poultry Processing Industry
Example of Processing: Cutting and Deboning
Description for Processing: Cutting and Deboning
Index

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