Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition

2nd Edition

Edited by Spiridon E. Kintzios, Maria G. Barberaki

CRC Press

480 pages | 32 Color Illus. | 195 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781498726405
pub: 2019-07-23
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Description

An increasing amount of cancer research is being directed towards the investigation of plant-derived anticancer compounds, many of which have been used in traditional herbal treatments for centuries. Plants that Fight Cancer is an up-to-date, extensive review of plant genera and species with documented anti-tumor and anti-leukaemic properties. Following an overview of the disease and the diverse methods of therapy and clinical testing, the book provides a detailed examination of the plants whose compounds are currently used in conventional cancer treatment, the species which show the greatest potential as future candidates, and other species with established anticancer properties. The third section explores each of more than 150 terrestrial plant genera and species, with a review of their traditional uses, mythology, botany, active ingredients, and product applications, along with photographs and illustrations and an analysis of expected results and risks. The text closes with a discussion of algal extracts and isolated metabolites with anticancer activity, a summary of published research for each species, and chemical structures of the most important compounds.

Table of Contents

1. Cancer: A Brief Overview of the Disease and its Treatment

1.1. Incidence and causes: cancer in a nutshell

1.2. Classification of cancer types

1.2.1. Cancers with less than 20% five-year survival rate

1.2.2. Cancers with five-year survival rates (at all stages) between 20 and 50%

1.2.3. Cancers with five-year survival rates between 50 and 80%

1.2.4. Cancers with five-year survival rates higher than 80%

1.3. Therapy

1.3.1. Conventional cancer treatments

1.3.2. Advanced cancer treatments

1.3.2.1. Protein kinase inhibitors and other enzymes

1.3.2.2. Immunotherapy

1.3.2.3. Angiogenesis inhibitors

1.3.2.4. Hormones

1.3.3. Other advanced therapies

1.3.4. Alternative cancer treatments

1.4. From source to patient: testing the efficiency of a candidate anticancer drug

1.4.1. Preclinical tests

1.4.2. Phases of Clinical Trials

1.4.3. Clinical Trial Protocols

2. The Plant Kingdom: Nature’s Pharmacy for Cancer Treatment

2. 1. Brief overview of the general organization of the plant cell

2.2. The chemical constituents of the plant cell

2.2.1. Primary metabolites

2.2.2. Secondary metabolites

2.3. Why do plant compounds have an anticancer activity?

2.4. Chemical groups of natural products with anticancer

2.5. Biotechnology and the supply issue

3. Cytotoxic Phenanthridone Alkaloid Constituents of the Amaryllidaceae

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Isolation of phenanthridones

3.3. Structural features of phenanthridones

3.4. Synthesis of phenanthridone alkaloids

3.5. Cytotoxic effects of phenanthridone alkaloids in vitro

3.5.1. Narciclasine and its congeners

3.5.2. Pancratistatin and its congeners

3.5.3. Narciprimine and its congeners

3.6. Structure-activity relationship studies

3.6.1. Truncated analogs

3.6.2. Ring-A modifications

3.6.3. Ring-B modifications

3.6.4. Ring-C modifications

3.7. Cytotoxic effects of phenanthridone alkaloids in vivo

3.7.1. In vivo effects of narciclasine

3.7.2. In vivo effects of pancratistatin

3.8. Mechanism of action of phenanthridone alkaloids

3.8.1. Permeability and solubility

3.8.2. Efflux pump interactions

3.8.3. Mitotic effects

3.8.4. Effects on protein synthesis

3.8.5. Topoisomerase inhibition

3.8.6. Effects on calprotectin

3.8.7. Effects on nitric oxide

3.8.8. Effects on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

3.8.9. Apoptosis inducing effects

3.8.9.1. Apoptosis inducing effects of narciclasine

3.8.9.2. Apoptosis inducing effects of pancratistatin

3.8.9.3. Apoptosis inducing effects of ring-C unsaturated analogs

3.8.10. Tumor invasion and metastasis

3.9. Conclusions

3.10. Acknowledgements

3.11. Conflict of interest

3.12. Abbreviations

4. Naphthoquinone-Contained Anticancer Terrestrial Plants

5. Polyphenols and cancer immunology

5.1. Introduction

5.1.1. Tumor microenvironment

5.2. Tumor-infiltrating cells

5.2.1. Macrophages

5.2.2. Dendritic cells (DCs)

5.2.3. NK cells

5.2.4. Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs)

5.2.5. T and B lymphocytes

5.2.5.1. T lymphocytes

5.2.5.1.1. CD8+ Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs)

5.2.5.1.2. CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes

5.2.5.1.3. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T lymphocytes (Tregs)

5.2.5.1.4. T-lymphocytes

5.2.5.2. B-lymphocytes

5.2.6. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs)

5.3. Natural compounds in cancer therapy

5.3.1. Polyphenols

5.3.1.1. Resveratrol

5.3.1.2. Curcumin

5.3.1.3. Quercetin

5.3.1.4. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) – (-)-Epigallocatechin 3- gallate (EGCG)

5.3.1.5. Apigenin

5.3.1.6. Silibinin

5.3.1.7. Other polyphenols

5.4. Conclusions

6. Medicinal plant-product based fabrication nanoparticles (Au and Ag) and their anticancer effects

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Medicinal plants and Au/or Ag-NPs synthesis

6.3. Mechanisms of action

6.4. Conclusion

7. Bladder and Prostate Cancer

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Method

7.3. Results

7.3.1. Selenium and Vitamin E

7.3.2. Pomegranate

7.3.3. Green Tea

7.3.4. Curcumin

7.3.5. Resveratrol

7.3.6. Silibinin

7.3.7. Ginkgo Bilboa

7.3.8.Modified Citrus Pectin

7. 3.9. Phellodendron amurense

7.3.10. Red Clover

7.3.11. Salvia

7.3.12. Mistletoe

7.3.13. Combined Therapies

7.4. Conclusion

8. Plant Lectins in Cancer Τreatment, the case of Viscum album L.

8.1. Introduction to lectin research

8.2. Lectin abundance and classification

8.3. Plant Lectins in cancer diagnosis and treatment

8.3.1 Plant lectins in cancer diagnosis

8.3.2 Plant lectins in cancer treatment

8.4. Viscum album lectins in cancer treatment

8.5. Conclusion

9. Plants Species with Anticancer Activity

9.1. Introduction: General Botanical Issues

9.1.1. Life cycle

9.1.2. Plant anatomy

9.2. Species-specific information

9.2.1. Success Stories: Plant species used in contemporary clinical cancer treatment

9.2.2. Species with Anticancer Active Ingredients

Appendix: Chemical structures of selected compounds

 

 

About the Editor

Spiridon E. Kintzios, Maria G. Barberaki, Evangelia A. Flampouri

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HEA011000
HEALTH & FITNESS / Herbal Medications
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI086000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General