Platelet Activating Factor Receptor
Signal Mechanisms and Molecular Biology
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Platelet activating factor (PAF) is the most potent phospholipid agonist known to date. PAF has a wide variety of physiological effects and has also been implicated in patho-physiology of cells. Since the structural elucidation of PAF in 1979, several laboratories have embarked upon characterizing the PAF receptor and its signaling pathways. This book focuses on this aspect and presents the first comprehensive account of research in the area. It also examines developments on the PAF receptor, its cloning, molecular features, coupling to multiple signaling pathways, and relationship to nuclear gene expression. This is an excellent reference volume for all researchers studying PAF.
Table of Contents
PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR-PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE (Donald J. Hanahan). Role of Endogenous PAF in Cells. A Case of Intracellular Inhibitors. Is There Evidence for Subcellular Receptors for PAF? Extracellular PAF Receptor Characterization. Naturally Occurring Analogues of PAF. CHARACTERIZATION OF PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTORS USING RADIOLIGAND BINDING STUDIES (San-Bao Hwang). Solubilization of PAF Receptors. G-Protein Involvement. Species Differences. Multiple Conformational States of PAF Receptors. Receptor Heterogeneity. Existence of Intracellular Receptors. Possible Functions of Intracellular PAF Receptors. SOLUBILIZATION OF FUNCTIONAL PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTOR FROM RABBIT PLATELETS (Lee-Young Chau, Yueh-Jin Jii, and Yu-Shen Hsu). Methods. Result. Summary and Conclusions. MOLECULAR CLONING OF PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTORS (Takao Shimizu). Molecular Cloning of PAF Receptors. Structure and Properties of PAF Receptors. Conclusion and Perspective. PLATELET- ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTOR FUNCTIONS VIA PHOSPHOINOSITIDE TURNOVER AND TYROSINE KINASE (Shivendra D. Shukla, Archie W. Thurston, Jr., Cindy Y. Zhu, and Animesh Dhar). PAF Stimulated Phosphoinositide Turnover. PAF Stimulation of Tyrosine Kinase. Interrelationship between PLC and Other Signalling Pathways. Concluding Remarks. POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL RESPONSES TO AND PROCESSING OF PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR (Joseph T. O'Flaherty). Structure and Physiochemistry. Structure-Activity Relations. Uptake and Metabolism. Functional Bioactions. PAF Receptors. Receptor Regulation. Receptor Linkages. Conclusions. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECULATION OF PAF RECEPTORS IN THE LIVER (Merle S. Olsen). Hepatic Effects of PAF. Synthesis of PAF in the Liver. Identification and Characterization of PAF Receptors on Hepatic-Derived Cells. PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR (PAF) RECEPTOR-MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION MECHANISMS IN NEUROHYBRID CELLS (Tian-Li Yue, Paul G. Lysko, Eitan Friedman, and Giora Feuerstein). PAF-Induced Intracellular Free CA++ ([Ca++]i) Elevation. PAF-Induced Phosphatidylinotitol (PI) Turnover. Protein Kinase C in Regulation of PAF-Induced Ca++ Signal and PI Turnover. G Proteins Coupled to PAF Receptors in Neurons. Summary. ACTIONS OF PAF ON SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLES: INTER- AND INTRA-CELLULAR SIGNALING MECHANISMS (A.G. Stewart and L.M. Delbridge). Vascular Smooth Muscle. Cardiac Muscle. Gastro-Intestinal Smooth Muscle. Airways Smooth Muscle. Other Smooth Muscle Types. Conclusion. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR INDUCED PRIMARY RESPONSE GENE EXPRESSION IN A431 CELLS (Yamini B. Tripathi and Shivendra D. Shukla). Characteristics of PAF as an Agonist. PAF and Signal Transduction. PAF and Gene Expression. Kinetics of c-fos Expression. Involvement of Tyrosine Kinase. Involvement of Protein Kinase C. Role of cAMP-Mediated Pathway. Role of Ca2+. Expression of Other Early Response Genes. Concluding Remarks. PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR AND INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS THAT MODULATE GENE EXPRESSION (Nicolas G. Bazan and John P. Doucet). Intracellular PAF and Selective Binding Antagonists. PAF is a Modulator of the Primary Genomic Response. PAF as a Signal Transducer in Ischemic and Seizure Responses of the Brain. Summary and Conclusions. PAF RECEPTORS AND ARACHIDONATE-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (Shuntaro Hara, Ichiro Kudo, and Keizo Inoue). Biochemical Aspects of Type IV Phospholipase A2. Possible Involvement of Type IV Phospholipase A2 in PAF Biosynthesis. Mechanism of PAF-Induced Type IV Phospholipase A2 Activation. METABOLIC FATE OF PAF CONTROLLED BY CELLULAR SIGNALING. (Mariano Sanchez-Crespo, Maria del Carmen Garcia, Carolina Garcia, Miguel Angel Gijon, Sagrario Fernandez-Gallardo, and Faustino Mollinedo). Materials and Methods. Results. Discussion. BIOSYNTHESIS, METABOLIC FATE, AND ACTIONS OF PAF IN THE LOWER ANIMALS (Takayuki Sugiura, Teruo Fukuda, Tatsyua Miyamoto, Neng-neng Cheng, and Keizo Waku). Ether Phospholipid Composition of Various Invertebrates. PAF Levels in Various Invertebrates. Enzyme Activities Involved in PAF Metabolism in Invertebrates. Metabolic Fate of PAF. Actions of PAF on Cells. Concluding Remarks.