It is always appropriate to ask whether an expedient foreign policy is morally justifiable, just as it is always appropriate to ask whether a morally defensible policy is consistent with the national interest. The ongoing dialogue between morality and realpolitik gives much of foreign policy debate its characteristic bite. In this collection of essays, a distinguished group of philosophers, political theorists, and lawyers– including Russell Hardin and Marshall Cohen–explore these contrasting themes. In essays that are at once insightful and accessible, noted political thinkers examine the tension of the conflicting demands of morality and national self-interest in the context of the foundations of international order, the possession and use of nuclear weapons, recourse to war, and the prospects for peace. A final postscript addresses the question of the responsibility of intellectuals in the national foreign policy debate. This book will appeal to scholars and students in any discipline dealing with international affairs as well as to lay readers who wish to explore the implications of taking morality and reason seriously in foreign policy.
Preface -- Introduction: Moral Principles and Moral Theory -- Morality and the International Order -- Introduction to Part One -- Moral Skepticism and International Relations -- Deterrence and Moral Theory -- Political Responsibility and Noncombatant Liability -- The Ethics of International Intervention -- The Ethics of Nuclear Deterrence -- Introduction to Part Two -- The Ethic of Nuclear Deterrence -- Between MAD and Counterforce -- How to Achieve Deterrence -- Nuclear Deterrence as Bluff: A Dialogue on the Moral Costs -- Nuclear Threats the Imposition of Risks -- The Immorality of Nuclear Deterrence -- Nationalism and the Prospects for Peace -- Introduction to Part Three -- Liberal Institutions and International Ethics -- Kant's Liberal Alliance: A Permanent Peace? -- Reflections on Realism in the Nuclear Age -- Loyalty and the Limits of Patriotism -- Postscript: Discussing Discussing Peace