Polymers and polymer-based composites possess a wide spectrum of properties, which allow them to be used in a diverse range of medical applications. This volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science deals with the application features of polymeric implants, their interaction with surrounding living tissues, the demands imposed upon the objects implanted and polymeric materials used for their manufacture, and the main types of polymers applied and their properties. Chapters 1-8 are devoted to various polymer applications in medical and biological fields; chapters 9-10 consider individual polymeric materials used in this field. This monograph is designed for use as a textbook for specializations in chemical and technological courses in universities, as well as a methodical manual and directory for scientists and researchers in both academia and industry.
Preface Introduction Response of organism to a foreign object Main terminology; Main processes proceeding in the implant-living organism system; Inflammatory process; Biodegradation (resorption) of implant; Capsule formation; Interconnection of biodegradation processes and encapsulation of the implant; Problem of hemocompatibility Substitution of cardiovascular system elements Endoprostheses of blood vessels; Endoprosthetics of heart valves; Whole heart endoprostheses and implants in pulmonary circulation systems; Electrostimulating devices; Other fields of application of polymeric implants in the cardiovascular system Implants in systems of bone and cartilaginous tissues Groups of materials used at substitutions in the bone system; Features of polymers used for implantation into the bone system; Main types of operations on bone elements using polymeric implants; Substitution of objects formed by cartilaginous tissue; Biologically active implants stimulating formation of new bone and cartilaginous tissues Substitution of ligaments, tendons and muscles. Substitution of soft tissues Substitution of ligaments, tendons and muscles; Substitution of soft tissues; filling of post-operation cavities Coverings for damaged skin areas Substitution using living skin; Artificial coverings for damaged skin areas; Other types of covers Polymeric filling composites in stomatology Types of materials for stomatology; Demands for dental filling composites; Types of polymeric binders; Dental adhesives Sutural materials General demands for the thread-like part; Types of materials of the thread part; Properties of thread materials; Additional processing of threads for sutural materials Other examples of polymer application in substitution of organs and tissues Polymeric implants in ophthalmology; Implants in the nervous system; Other examples of polymers applications as implants Polymers used for implant production Carbochain polymers; Heterochain polymers; Organic polymers containing inorganic elements; Natural polymers; Composites; Acceptance of polymeric materials Sterilization of polymeric implants General positions; Sterilization of production plant sections; Methods of sterilizing polymeric implants Conclusion; Bibliography; Trademarks of some mentioned polymers and polymeric materials; Subject index; Trademarks of materials and articles; Companies-manufacturers and institutions.