Porous Media: Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Porous Media

Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology, 1st Edition

Edited by Kambiz Vafai

CRC Press

632 pages | 194 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-08-24
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Presenting state-of-the-art research advancements, Porous Media: Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology explores innovative approaches to effectively apply existing porous media technologies to biomedical applications. In each peer-reviewed chapter, world-class scientists and engineers collaborate to address significant problems and discuss exciting research in biological systems.

The book begins with discussions on bioheat transfer equations for blood flows and surrounding biological tissue, the concept of electroporation, hydrodynamic modeling of tissue-engineered material, and the resistance of microbial biofilms to common modalities of antibiotic treatments. It examines how biofilms influence porous media hydrodynamics, describes the modeling of flow changes in cerebral aneurysms, and highlights recent advances in Lagrangian particles methods. The text also covers passive mass transport processes in cellular membranes and their biophysical implications, the modeling and treatment of mass transport through skin, the use of porous media in marine microbiology, the transport of large biological molecules in deforming tissues, and applications of magnetic stabilized beds for protein purification and adsorption, antibody removal, and more. The final chapters present potential in situ characterization techniques for studying porous media and conductive membranes and explain the development of bioconvection patterns generated by populations of gravitactic microorganisms in porous media.

Using a common nomenclature throughout and with contributions from top experts, this cohesive book illustrates the role of porous media in addressing some of the most challenging issues in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. The book contains sophisticated porous media models that can be used to improve the accuracy of modeling a variety of biological processes.

Table of Contents

A General Set of Bioheat Equations Based on the Volume Averaging Theory, Akira Nakayama, Fujio Kuwahara, and Wei Liu


Volume Averaging Procedure

Governing Equation for Blood Flow

Two-Energy Equation Model for Blood Flow and Tissue

Three-Energy Equation Model for Countercurrent Heat Transfer in a Circulatory System

Effect of Spatial Distribution of Perfusion Bleed-Off Rate on Total Countercurrent Heat Transfer

Application of Bioheat Equation to Cryoablation Therapy



Mathematical Models of Mass Transfer in Tissue for Molecular Medicine with Reversible Electroporation, Yair Granot and Boris Rubinsky


Fundamental Aspects of Reversible Electroporation

Mathematical Models of Ion Transport during Electroporation

Electrical Impedance Tomography of In Vivo Electroporation

Mass Transfer in Tissue with Reversible Electroporation

Studies on Molecular Medicine with Drug Delivery in Tissue by Electroporation

Future Research Needs in Mathematical Modeling of the Field of Electroporation

Hydrodynamics in Porous Media with Applications to Tissue Engineering, T. Lemaire, J. Pierre, B. David, and C. Oddou



Cell and Tissue Engineering: Physicochemical Determinants of the Development

Bioreactors and Implants

Theoretical Models of Active Porous Media


Biomedical Implications of the Porosity of Microbial Biofilms, H. Ben-Yoav, N. Cohen-Hadar, and Amihay Freeman


The Life Cycle of Biofilms

Infectious Microbial Biofilms—Structural and Biological Characteristics

Infectious Microbial Biofilms—Treatment Modalities and Resistance

Concluding Remarks

Influence of Biofilms on Porous Media Hydrodynamics, Robin Gerlach and Alfred B. Cunningham

Introduction and Overview

An Introduction to Biofilms

Experimental Systems and Techniques for the Investigation of Biofilms in Porous Media

Biofilms in Porous Media and Their Effect on Hydrodynamics

A Few Notes on Modeling

Porous Media Biofilms in Nature and Technology

Conclusions and Outlook

Using Porous Media Theory to Determine the Coil Volume Needed to Arrest Flow in Brain Aneurysms, Khalil M. Khanafer and Ramon Berguer



Physics of Cerebral Aneurysms


Mathematical Formulations

Construction of Brain Aneurysm Meshes from CT Scans

Results and Discussion

Minimum Packing Density of the Endovascular Coil

Future Work


Lagrangian Particle Methods for Biological Systems, Alexandre M. Tartakovsky, Zhijie Xu, and Paul Meakin


DPDs for Biological Applications

SPHs Model for Biofilm Growth

An SPH Model for Mineral Precipitation

Hybrid Models for Diffusion-Reaction Systems


Passive Mass Transport Processes in Cellular Membranes and Their Biophysical Implications, Armin Kargol and Marian Kargol


Thermodynamic KK Equations

Porous Membranes

Mechanistic Equations of Membrane Transport

Water Exchange between Aquatic Plants and the Environment

Passive Transport through Cell Membranes of Human Erythrocytes

Comparison of Transport Formalisms: KK, ME, and 2P

Skin Electroporation: Modeling Perspectives, S.M. Becker and A.V. Kuznetsov


Transdermal Drug Delivery

The Skin as a Composite

Stratum Corneum and the Lipid Barrier

Nondestructive Transport Modeling: The SC as a Porous Medium

Skin Electroporation

Skin Electroporation Models (nonthermal)

Thermodynamic Approach


Application of Porous Media Theories in Marine Biological Modeling, Arzhang Khalili, Bo Liu, Khodayar Javadi, Mohammad R. Morad, Maciej Matyka, Roman Stocker, and Zbigniew Koza


Mathematical Description of the Model

Application of Porous Media in Marine Microbiology

Future Perspectives

The Transport of Insulin-Like Growth Factor through Cartilage, Lihai Zhang, Bruce S. Gardiner, David W. Smith, Peter Pivonka, and Alan J. Grodzinsky


Basic Solute Transport Model in a Deforming Articular Cartilage

Basic Solute Transport Model in Cyclically Loaded Cartilage

Model Geometry for Radial Solute Transport in Cartilage under Unconfined Cyclic Compression

The Effect of Cyclic Loading and IGF-I Binding on IGF-I Transport in Cartilage

Interaction between IGF-I and Its IGFBPs

Results and Discussion

IGF Transport with Competitive Binding in a Deforming Articular Cartilage

Model Development for a Competitor Growth Factor

An Integrated Model of IGF-I and Mechanical–Loading-Mediated Biosynthesis in a Deformed Articular Cartilage

Biosynthesis Model Construction

Biosynthesis Model Validation and Predictions


Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Stabilized and Fluidized Beds, Teresa Castelo-Grande, Paulo A. Augusto, Angel M. Estevéz, Jesus Ma. Rodríguez, Audelino Álvaro, and Domingos Barbosa


Historical Overview of Magnetically Stabilized and Fluidized Beds

MSBs and MFBs

General Supporting Theory

Main Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

In Situ Characterizations of Porous Media for Applications in Biofuel Cells: Issues and Challenges, Bor Yann Liaw


Biofuel Cell Applications

Desirable Properties and Functionalities

Needs for In Situ Characterization: Issues and Challenges

Applicable In Situ Techniques

Future Directions

Spatial Pattern Formation of Motile Microorganisms: From Gravitactic Bioconvection to Protozoan Culture Dynamics, Tri Nguyen-Quang, The Hung Nguyen, and Frederic Guichard

Description and Literature Review of Bioconvection

Onset and Evolution of Gravitactic Bioconvection: Linear Stability Analysis and Numerical Simulation

Experimental Study of the Pattern Formation in a Suspension of Gravitactic Microorganisms

Summary and Perspectives of Future Research

Appendix: Boussinesq Approximation for the Microorganism Suspension


References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Editor


Kambiz Vafai is a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Riverside. With over 4,000 ISI citations to his name, Dr. Vafai is the author or coauthor of more than 200 archival journal articles, thirteen book chapters, and eighteen symposium volumes as well as the editor of three books. He is also an editorial advisory board member of several journals and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Porous Media and Reviews in Porous Media — an International Journal. He has worked on a multitude of fundamental research investigations, a number of which have addressed some pertinent concepts presented for the first time.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
SCIENCE / Biotechnology