2nd Edition

Port Security Management




ISBN 9781466591639
Published June 20, 2014 by CRC Press
376 Pages 54 B/W Illustrations

USD $105.00

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Book Description

Sea and freshwater ports are a key component of critical infrastructure and essential for maintaining global and domestic economies. In order to effectively secure a dynamic port facility operation, one must understand the business of maritime commerce. Following in the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, Port Security Management, Second Edition continues to supply readers with this understanding.

This fully updated edition covers the latest in continuously changing legislation regarding federal mandates, securing vessels, cargo security, and granting employee credentials. Focusing on best practices, it details real-world solutions that law enforcement authorities and security management professionals can put to use immediately.

Assuming little prior knowledge of the industry, the book examines port security in the context of global transportation systems. It supplies practitioners and educators with a framework for managing port security and details risk assessment and physical security best practices for securing ships and ports.

The book explains how the various stakeholders, including port management, security, government, and private industry, can collaborate to develop safe and secure best practices while maintaining efficient operations.

Addressing the legislative measures, regulatory issues, and logistical aspects of port security, the book includes coverage of cruise ships, cargo security, CT-PAT, and emergency operations. Complete with a new chapter on intelligence, this book is ideal for anyone with a vested interest in secure and prosperous port facilities who wants to truly understand how to best tackle the management of port security.

Table of Contents

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF PORT AND MARITIME SECURITY

Introduction to Port Security Management
Global Transportation System: The Context for Port Security
A Renewed Security Concern about Threats to Shipping and Commerce
Public Policy and Port Responsiveness to Commerce
Economic Dependence on Maritime Transportation
A Renewed Emphasis on Securing Ships and Ports
A Need for Partnerships between Government and Business in Managing Port Security 
A Strategy for Port Security Management
Summary
References

Maritime and Port Security: A Manager’s Perspective
Understanding the Port Environment
Security Management within the Context of History 
Maritime Sector and Security
     Freedom of the Seas 
     International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea 
     International Ship and Port Facility Security Code 
     United States Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 
     United States Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006
9/11: A Paradigm Shift toward Enhanced Security in the Maritime Domain
Summary
References

Security Challenges Facing Port Operations
Central Challenge: Security Management as a Component of Organizational Improvement
Port Organization as an Open System 
     Importation of Energy 
     Throughput 
     Output 
     Systems as Cycles of Events 
     Negative Entropy 
     Information Input, Negative Feedback, and the Coding Process 
     Steady State and Dynamic Homeostasis 
     Differentiation 
     Integration and Coordination 
     Equifinality
Specific Security Challenges in the Port Environment 
     Terrorism 
     Weapons of Mass Destruction 
     Hazardous Materials 
     Internal Criminal Conspiracies
     Piracy 
     Cargo Theft
     Vandalism 
     Stowaways 
     Poorly Trained Security Personnel
     Crimes against Passengers and Crew 
     General Civil Unrest 
     Workplace Violence 
     Economic Espionage 
     Commercial Conspiracies
Summary
References

RISK MANAGEMENT, PLANNING, AND COORDINATION OF PORT SECURITY

Port Security as a Risk Management Activity
Risk Management: A Foundation for Rational Security 
     Convergence
Port Facility Security and the Risk Assessment Process 
     Design Basis Threat 
     Catastrophe Modeling 
     Levels of Probability
Risk-Based Decision Making
Cost-Effective Risk Assessment
     Recommendations for Developing Efficiencies in Risk Assessment Strategies
Security Survey 
     Identify Assets 
     Establish Criticality 
     Determine Vulnerability 
     Determine Probability
Quantification of Risk
Summary
References

Port Facility Security as a Management Function
Acts and Functions of Management 
     Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory 
     A Problem-Solving Approach to Port Security Management: Lessons from the Police Experience 
     What Managers Do in Organizations
Port Security Planning 
     Design and Architecture Stage 
     Focus on Integration and Cooperation 
     Minimize the Fortress Mentality
Developing a Port Facility Security Plan 
     Planning a Layered Approach to Security
Port Management in a Homeland Security Environment 
     Homeland Security Act of 2002 
     Homeland Security Presidential Directives 
     Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 
     Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 
     United States Coast Guard Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars
Developing Security Partnerships 
     Port Security Steering Committee
Summary
References

Implementing a Plan for Port Security: Management Tasks and Responsibilities Facility and Personnel Security
Port Facility Security Officer 
     General Provisions 
     Qualifications 
     Responsibilities
Port Facility Security Plan 
     Organization of the Port Facility Security Plan
Maritime Security Levels 
     MARSEC Level 1 
     MARSEC Level 2 
     MARSEC Level 3 
     MARSEC Level Change Action List
Facility Security Assessment 
     Background Information 
     On-Scene Survey 
     Analysis and Recommendations 
     Facility Security Assessment Report
Facility Security Plan Audit
Port Personnel Security Awareness 
     Objectives for a Port Security Awareness Program 
     Port Security Awareness Components: What Personnel Need to Know
Summary
References

Access Controls 
Port Vulnerabilities Associated with Access Controls 
     Frequency of Access 
     Advance Notice Requirements
Identification and Credentialing 
     Photo Identification Credentials 
     Fingerprints and Criminal History Background Checks 
     Transportation Workers Identification Credential 
     Credentialing Procedures
     Credentialing Classification Systems 
     Credential Coding 
     Production Processes 
     Credential Sequencing 
     Lost or Stolen Credentials 
     Role of Port Users in Credentialing Programs 
     Visualizing and Inspecting Access Credentials 
     Visitor Controls 
     Visitor Brochure
Restricted Area Access Controls 
     Balancing Access Control and Port Commerce 
     Identifying and Defining Restricted Access Areas 
     Gates and Gate Access Controls 
     Preventing and Deterring Access to Restricted Areas 
     Controlling Vehicles in Restricted Access Areas 
     Temporary Restricted Area Vehicle Authorization Documentation 
Vehicle and Pedestrian Screening 
     Suspicious Indicators in Screening 
     Screening Equipment
     Delivery of Vessel Provisions
Access Control Measures
Summary
References

Physical and Waterside Security in the Port Facility
Managing Physical Defenses in a Competitive Environment
Standard Operating Procedures
Perimeter Security 
     Crime Prevention through Environmental Design 
     Fencing
Parking Control
Access Points
Small Vessel Threat and Waterside Security
     Port Security Small Vessel Threat Mitigation Strategies
Summary
References

Security Force Management
Security and Human Resources
A Framework for Managing and Leading the Security Force
Staff Planning and Budgeting 
     Staffing Needs Assessment
     Debate on Private Security versus Law Enforcement
     Debate on Proprietary Security versus Contract Security
Developing and Maintaining Force Competencies in Port Security 
     Port Security Personnel Training 
     Written Directives
Security Force Operations and Patrols
Summary
References

Vessel and Cargo Operations
Vessel Operations 
     Security Planning Considerations for Vessels 
     Coordinating Security between the Port Facility and Vessels 
     Declaration of Security 
     Passenger and Crew Security 
     Military Vessel Visits to Commercial Port Facilities
Cargo Operations 
     United States Government Initiatives to Secure Cargo 
     Cargo Security in the Port Facility 
     Cargo Building Security
Summary
References

Safety and Emergency Management
Safety Management in the Port Facility 
     Occupational Safety and Health 
     Port Facility Safety 
     Port Safety Officer
     Port Safety Committee
Emergency Management 
     Port Facility Interfaces with Homeland Security 
     National Incident Management System and Incident Command System 
     Elements of an Emergency Operations Plan 
     Role of the Port Facility Security Officer in Emergencies 
     Hazardous Materials Incidents 
     Port Facility Evacuations 
     Emergency Information Management 
     Increases in Maritime Security Levels 
     Continuity of Operations Planning
Summary
References

Managing Technology Solutions for Port Facility Security
Security Convergence in the Port Facility: The Role of Technology
Situational Awareness and Situational Readiness 
     Situational Awareness 
     Situational Readiness
Surveillance Systems 
     Sonar
     Closed Circuit Television
Computer and Information Security
     Cyberterrorism 
     Employee Education for IT Security
Summary
References

Intelligence
Role of Intelligence in Port Security Planning
Sharing of Public–Private Sector Intelligence
Fusion
Summary
References

Systemic Management for a Secure and Viable Port Facility
Collaborations between Port Security and Law Enforcement Operations
     Administrative and Coordinating Roles of Police Units in Port Facilities 
     Incident Investigations: Suspicious Activities 
Systemic Management of Port Security: Case Study-Port of Miami (1997–2006) 
     Overview 
     Security Organization 
     Legal and Financial Constraints 
     Lessons Learned
The Challenge of Collaboration in Managing Port Security
Summary
References

Glossary and Organizational Resources
Bibliography
Appendix
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Kenneth Christopher, DPA, holds a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice (University of Dayton) and master’s (Florida International University) and doctoral (Nova Southeastern University) degrees in public administration. He is a graduate of the Administrative Officers Management Program at North Carolina State University and the Executive Contemporary Education for Leadership Program at the University of Miami. Dr. Christopher served 26 years in law enforcement, most recently as a captain with the Miami-Dade Police Department in Miami, Florida. From 1996 to 2006, he held progressively responsible police and security management positions at the Port of Miami. In 2005, he was appointed chief of seaport security enforcement and facility security officer, responsible for the port facility security plan, leadership for the civilian security staff, and the coordination of security and law enforcement operations at the world’s largest passenger cruise port. Currently, Dr. Christopher is associate vice president for academic affairs and associate professor of criminal justice at Park University, which provides educational services to 26,000 students at over 40 campus centers across the United States and through distance learning from its home campus in Parkville, Missouri. He has held teaching positions at Lynn University in Boca Raton, Florida, and at St. Thomas University in Miami, Florida. Previously, Dr. Christopher has worked with the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Organization of American States as a curriculum developer and instructor in the Inter-American Port Security Training Program. He has consulted on and developed educational programs and curricula in port security, criminal justice administration, security administration, terrorism and domestic preparedness, police management, and organizational behavior. His current interests include cooperative leadership strategies for port security management and assessing human and technology resources necessary for maritime domain awareness.

Reviews

"The main strength of this book is the insight it provides into ‘manufacturing in China’. The breadth of topics is impressive. An interesting book that will be useful for both practitioners and researchers."
—Professor Ashutosh Tiwari, Cranfield University, UK

"All those involved in maritime transport and port security will benefit from this informative, authoritative reference and will find it useful in their daily work."
—Dr. Joshua Sinai, Director of Analytics and Business Intelligence, Resilient Corporation, Alexandria, Virginia, in Security Management