Port Security Management: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Port Security Management

2nd Edition

By Kenneth Christopher

CRC Press

376 pages | 54 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-06-20
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Sea and freshwater ports are a key component of critical infrastructure and essential for maintaining global and domestic economies. In order to effectively secure a dynamic port facility operation, one must understand the business of maritime commerce. Following in the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, Port Security Management, Second Edition continues to supply readers with this understanding.

This fully updated edition covers the latest in continuously changing legislation regarding federal mandates, securing vessels, cargo security, and granting employee credentials. Focusing on best practices,it details real-world solutions that law enforcement authorities and security management professionals can put to use immediately.

Assuming little prior knowledge of the industry, the book examines port security in the context of global transportation systems. It supplies practitioners and educators with a framework for managing port security and details risk assessment and physical security best practices for securing ships and ports.

The book explains how the various stakeholders, including port management, security, government, and private industry, can collaborate to develop safe and secure best practices while maintaining efficient operations.

Addressing the legislative measures, regulatory issues, and logistical aspects of port security, the book includes coverage of cruise ships, cargo security, CT-PAT, and emergency operations. Complete with a new chapter on intelligence, this book is ideal for anyone with a vested interest in secure and prosperous port facilities who wants to truly understand how to best tackle the management of port security.


"The main strength of this book is the insight it provides into ‘manufacturing in China’. The breadth of topics is impressive. An interesting book that will be useful for both practitioners and researchers."

—Professor Ashutosh Tiwari, Cranfield University, UK

"All those involved in maritime transport and port security will benefit from this informative, authoritative reference and will find it useful in their daily work."

—Dr. Joshua Sinai, Director of Analytics and Business Intelligence, Resilient Corporation, Alexandria, Virginia, in Security Management

Table of Contents


Introduction to Port Security Management

Global Transportation System: The Context for Port Security

A Renewed Security Concern about Threats to Shipping and Commerce

Public Policy and Port Responsiveness to Commerce

Economic Dependence on Maritime Transportation

A Renewed Emphasis on Securing Ships and Ports

A Need for Partnerships between Government and Business in Managing Port Security

A Strategy for Port Security Management



Maritime and Port Security: A Manager’s Perspective

Understanding the Port Environment

Security Management within the Context of History

Maritime Sector and Security

Freedom of the Seas

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea

International Ship and Port Facility Security Code

United States Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002

United States Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006

9/11: A Paradigm Shift toward Enhanced Security in the Maritime Domain



Security Challenges Facing Port Operations

Central Challenge: Security Management as a Component of Organizational Improvement

Port Organization as an Open System

Importation of Energy



Systems as Cycles of Events

Negative Entropy

Information Input, Negative Feedback, and the Coding Process

Steady State and Dynamic Homeostasis


Integration and Coordination


Specific Security Challenges in the Port Environment


Weapons of Mass Destruction

Hazardous Materials

Internal Criminal Conspiracies


Cargo Theft



Poorly Trained Security Personnel

Crimes against Passengers and Crew

General Civil Unrest

Workplace Violence

Economic Espionage

Commercial Conspiracies




Port Security as a Risk Management Activity

Risk Management: A Foundation for Rational Security


Port Facility Security and the Risk Assessment Process

Design Basis Threat

Catastrophe Modeling

Levels of Probability

Risk-Based Decision Making

Cost-Effective Risk Assessment

Recommendations for Developing Efficiencies in Risk Assessment Strategies

Security Survey

Identify Assets

Establish Criticality

Determine Vulnerability

Determine Probability

Quantification of Risk



Port Facility Security as a Management Function

Acts and Functions of Management

Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory

A Problem-Solving Approach to Port Security Management: Lessons from the Police Experience

What Managers Do in Organizations

Port Security Planning

Design and Architecture Stage

Focus on Integration and Cooperation

Minimize the Fortress Mentality

Developing a Port Facility Security Plan

Planning a Layered Approach to Security

Port Management in a Homeland Security Environment

Homeland Security Act of 2002

Homeland Security Presidential Directives

Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002

Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006

United States Coast Guard Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars

Developing Security Partnerships

Port Security Steering Committee



Implementing a Plan for Port Security: Management Tasks and Responsibilities Facility and Personnel Security

Port Facility Security Officer

General Provisions



Port Facility Security Plan

Organization of the Port Facility Security Plan

Maritime Security Levels

MARSEC Level 1

MARSEC Level 2

MARSEC Level 3

MARSEC Level Change Action List

Facility Security Assessment

Background Information

On-Scene Survey

Analysis and Recommendations

Facility Security Assessment Report

Facility Security Plan Audit

Port Personnel Security Awareness

Objectives for a Port Security Awareness Program

Port Security Awareness Components: What Personnel Need to Know



Access Controls

Port Vulnerabilities Associated with Access Controls

Frequency of Access

Advance Notice Requirements

Identification and Credentialing

Photo Identification Credentials

Fingerprints and Criminal History Background Checks

Transportation Workers Identification Credential

Credentialing Procedures

Credentialing Classification Systems

Credential Coding

Production Processes

Credential Sequencing

Lost or Stolen Credentials

Role of Port Users in Credentialing Programs

Visualizing and Inspecting Access Credentials

Visitor Controls

Visitor Brochure

Restricted Area Access Controls

Balancing Access Control and Port Commerce

Identifying and Defining Restricted Access Areas

Gates and Gate Access Controls

Preventing and Deterring Access to Restricted Areas

Controlling Vehicles in Restricted Access Areas

Temporary Restricted Area Vehicle Authorization Documentation

Vehicle and Pedestrian Screening

Suspicious Indicators in Screening

Screening Equipment

Delivery of Vessel Provisions

Access Control Measures



Physical and Waterside Security in the Port Facility

Managing Physical Defenses in a Competitive Environment

Standard Operating Procedures

Perimeter Security

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design


Parking Control

Access Points

Small Vessel Threat and Waterside Security

Port Security Small Vessel Threat Mitigation Strategies



Security Force Management

Security and Human Resources

A Framework for Managing and Leading the Security Force

Staff Planning and Budgeting

Staffing Needs Assessment

Debate on Private Security versus Law Enforcement

Debate on Proprietary Security versus Contract Security

Developing and Maintaining Force Competencies in Port Security

Port Security Personnel Training

Written Directives

Security Force Operations and Patrols



Vessel and Cargo Operations

Vessel Operations

Security Planning Considerations for Vessels

Coordinating Security between the Port Facility and Vessels

Declaration of Security

Passenger and Crew Security

Military Vessel Visits to Commercial Port Facilities

Cargo Operations

United States Government Initiatives to Secure Cargo

Cargo Security in the Port Facility

Cargo Building Security



Safety and Emergency Management

Safety Management in the Port Facility

Occupational Safety and Health

Port Facility Safety

Port Safety Officer

Port Safety Committee

Emergency Management

Port Facility Interfaces with Homeland Security

National Incident Management System and Incident Command System

Elements of an Emergency Operations Plan

Role of the Port Facility Security Officer in Emergencies

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Port Facility Evacuations

Emergency Information Management

Increases in Maritime Security Levels

Continuity of Operations Planning



Managing Technology Solutions for Port Facility Security

Security Convergence in the Port Facility: The Role of Technology

Situational Awareness and Situational Readiness

Situational Awareness

Situational Readiness

Surveillance Systems


Closed Circuit Television

Computer and Information Security


Employee Education for IT Security




Role of Intelligence in Port Security Planning

Sharing of Public–Private Sector Intelligence




Systemic Management for a Secure and Viable Port Facility

Collaborations between Port Security and Law Enforcement Operations

Administrative and Coordinating Roles of Police Units in Port Facilities

Incident Investigations: Suspicious Activities

Systemic Management of Port Security: Case Study-Port of Miami (1997–2006)


Security Organization

Legal and Financial Constraints

Lessons Learned

The Challenge of Collaboration in Managing Port Security



Glossary and Organizational Resources




About the Author

Kenneth Christopher, DPA, holds a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice (University of Dayton) and master’s (Florida International University) and doctoral (Nova Southeastern University) degrees in public administration. He is a graduate of the Administrative Officers Management Program at North Carolina State University and the Executive Contemporary Education for Leadership Program at the University of Miami.

Dr. Christopher served 26 years in law enforcement, most recently as a captain with the Miami-Dade Police Department in Miami, Florida. From 1996 to 2006, he held progressively responsible police and security management positions at the Port of Miami. In 2005, he was appointed chief of seaport security enforcement and facility security officer, responsible for the port facility security plan, leadership for the civilian security staff, and the coordination of security and law enforcement operations at the world’s largest passenger cruise port.

Currently, Dr. Christopher is associate vice president for academic affairs and associate professor of criminal justice at Park University, which provides educational services to 26,000 students at over 40 campus centers across the United States and through distance learning from its home campus in Parkville, Missouri. He has held teaching positions at Lynn University in Boca Raton, Florida, and at St. Thomas University in Miami, Florida.

Previously, Dr. Christopher has worked with the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Organization of American States as a curriculum developer and instructor in the Inter-American Port Security Training Program. He has consulted on and developed educational programs and curricula in port security, criminal justice administration, security administration, terrorism and domestic preparedness, police management, and organizational behavior. His current interests include cooperative leadership strategies for port security management and assessing human and technology resources necessary for maritime domain awareness.

Dr. Christopher is a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and ASIS International, and he is an ASIS Certified Protection Professional. He has been an invited speaker at international and national conferences on maritime and homeland security, including SecurePort, the Institute for Defense and Government Advancement, ASIS International’s Asia-Pacific Security Conference, IQPC Seaport Security India, and Maritime Security Outlook.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / Military / General
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / Terrorism
POLITICAL SCIENCE / World / Middle Eastern