376 Pages 54 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Sea and freshwater ports are a key component of critical infrastructure and essential for maintaining global and domestic economies. In order to effectively secure a dynamic port facility operation, one must understand the business of maritime commerce. Following in the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, Port Security Management, Second Edition continues to supply readers with this understanding.

    This fully updated edition covers the latest in continuously changing legislation regarding federal mandates, securing vessels, cargo security, and granting employee credentials. Focusing on best practices, it details real-world solutions that law enforcement authorities and security management professionals can put to use immediately.

    Assuming little prior knowledge of the industry, the book examines port security in the context of global transportation systems. It supplies practitioners and educators with a framework for managing port security and details risk assessment and physical security best practices for securing ships and ports.

    The book explains how the various stakeholders, including port management, security, government, and private industry, can collaborate to develop safe and secure best practices while maintaining efficient operations.

    Addressing the legislative measures, regulatory issues, and logistical aspects of port security, the book includes coverage of cruise ships, cargo security, CT-PAT, and emergency operations. Complete with a new chapter on intelligence, this book is ideal for anyone with a vested interest in secure and prosperous port facilities who wants to truly understand how to best tackle the management of port security.


    Introduction to Port Security Management
    Global Transportation System: The Context for Port Security
    A Renewed Security Concern about Threats to Shipping and Commerce
    Public Policy and Port Responsiveness to Commerce
    Economic Dependence on Maritime Transportation
    A Renewed Emphasis on Securing Ships and Ports
    A Need for Partnerships between Government and Business in Managing Port Security 
    A Strategy for Port Security Management

    Maritime and Port Security: A Manager’s Perspective
    Understanding the Port Environment
    Security Management within the Context of History 
    Maritime Sector and Security
         Freedom of the Seas 
         International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
    United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea 
         International Ship and Port Facility Security Code 
         United States Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 
         United States Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006
    9/11: A Paradigm Shift toward Enhanced Security in the Maritime Domain

    Security Challenges Facing Port Operations
    Central Challenge: Security Management as a Component of Organizational Improvement
    Port Organization as an Open System 
         Importation of Energy 
         Systems as Cycles of Events 
         Negative Entropy 
         Information Input, Negative Feedback, and the Coding Process 
         Steady State and Dynamic Homeostasis 
         Integration and Coordination 
    Specific Security Challenges in the Port Environment 
         Weapons of Mass Destruction 
         Hazardous Materials 
         Internal Criminal Conspiracies
         Cargo Theft
         Poorly Trained Security Personnel
         Crimes against Passengers and Crew 
         General Civil Unrest 
         Workplace Violence 
         Economic Espionage 
         Commercial Conspiracies


    Port Security as a Risk Management Activity
    Risk Management: A Foundation for Rational Security 
    Port Facility Security and the Risk Assessment Process 
         Design Basis Threat 
         Catastrophe Modeling 
         Levels of Probability
    Risk-Based Decision Making
    Cost-Effective Risk Assessment
         Recommendations for Developing Efficiencies in Risk Assessment Strategies
    Security Survey 
         Identify Assets 
         Establish Criticality 
         Determine Vulnerability 
         Determine Probability
    Quantification of Risk

    Port Facility Security as a Management Function
    Acts and Functions of Management 
         Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory 
         A Problem-Solving Approach to Port Security Management: Lessons from the Police Experience 
         What Managers Do in Organizations
    Port Security Planning 
         Design and Architecture Stage 
         Focus on Integration and Cooperation 
         Minimize the Fortress Mentality
    Developing a Port Facility Security Plan 
         Planning a Layered Approach to Security
    Port Management in a Homeland Security Environment 
         Homeland Security Act of 2002 
         Homeland Security Presidential Directives 
         Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 
         Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 
         United States Coast Guard Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars
    Developing Security Partnerships 
         Port Security Steering Committee

    Implementing a Plan for Port Security: Management Tasks and Responsibilities Facility and Personnel Security
    Port Facility Security Officer 
         General Provisions 
    Port Facility Security Plan 
         Organization of the Port Facility Security Plan
    Maritime Security Levels 
         MARSEC Level 1 
         MARSEC Level 2 
         MARSEC Level 3 
         MARSEC Level Change Action List
    Facility Security Assessment 
         Background Information 
         On-Scene Survey 
         Analysis and Recommendations 
         Facility Security Assessment Report
    Facility Security Plan Audit
    Port Personnel Security Awareness 
         Objectives for a Port Security Awareness Program 
         Port Security Awareness Components: What Personnel Need to Know

    Access Controls 
    Port Vulnerabilities Associated with Access Controls 
         Frequency of Access 
         Advance Notice Requirements
    Identification and Credentialing 
         Photo Identification Credentials 
         Fingerprints and Criminal History Background Checks 
         Transportation Workers Identification Credential 
         Credentialing Procedures
         Credentialing Classification Systems 
         Credential Coding 
         Production Processes 
         Credential Sequencing 
         Lost or Stolen Credentials 
         Role of Port Users in Credentialing Programs 
         Visualizing and Inspecting Access Credentials 
         Visitor Controls 
         Visitor Brochure
    Restricted Area Access Controls 
         Balancing Access Control and Port Commerce 
         Identifying and Defining Restricted Access Areas 
         Gates and Gate Access Controls 
         Preventing and Deterring Access to Restricted Areas 
         Controlling Vehicles in Restricted Access Areas 
         Temporary Restricted Area Vehicle Authorization Documentation 
    Vehicle and Pedestrian Screening 
         Suspicious Indicators in Screening 
         Screening Equipment
         Delivery of Vessel Provisions
    Access Control Measures

    Physical and Waterside Security in the Port Facility
    Managing Physical Defenses in a Competitive Environment
    Standard Operating Procedures
    Perimeter Security 
         Crime Prevention through Environmental Design 
    Parking Control
    Access Points
    Small Vessel Threat and Waterside Security
         Port Security Small Vessel Threat Mitigation Strategies

    Security Force Management
    Security and Human Resources
    A Framework for Managing and Leading the Security Force
    Staff Planning and Budgeting 
         Staffing Needs Assessment
         Debate on Private Security versus Law Enforcement
         Debate on Proprietary Security versus Contract Security
    Developing and Maintaining Force Competencies in Port Security 
         Port Security Personnel Training 
         Written Directives
    Security Force Operations and Patrols

    Vessel and Cargo Operations
    Vessel Operations 
         Security Planning Considerations for Vessels 
         Coordinating Security between the Port Facility and Vessels 
         Declaration of Security 
         Passenger and Crew Security 
         Military Vessel Visits to Commercial Port Facilities
    Cargo Operations 
         United States Government Initiatives to Secure Cargo 
         Cargo Security in the Port Facility 
         Cargo Building Security

    Safety and Emergency Management
    Safety Management in the Port Facility 
         Occupational Safety and Health 
         Port Facility Safety 
         Port Safety Officer
         Port Safety Committee
    Emergency Management 
         Port Facility Interfaces with Homeland Security 
         National Incident Management System and Incident Command System 
         Elements of an Emergency Operations Plan 
         Role of the Port Facility Security Officer in Emergencies 
         Hazardous Materials Incidents 
         Port Facility Evacuations 
         Emergency Information Management 
         Increases in Maritime Security Levels 
         Continuity of Operations Planning

    Managing Technology Solutions for Port Facility Security
    Security Convergence in the Port Facility: The Role of Technology
    Situational Awareness and Situational Readiness 
         Situational Awareness 
         Situational Readiness
    Surveillance Systems 
         Closed Circuit Television
    Computer and Information Security
         Employee Education for IT Security

    Role of Intelligence in Port Security Planning
    Sharing of Public–Private Sector Intelligence

    Systemic Management for a Secure and Viable Port Facility
    Collaborations between Port Security and Law Enforcement Operations
         Administrative and Coordinating Roles of Police Units in Port Facilities 
         Incident Investigations: Suspicious Activities 
    Systemic Management of Port Security: Case Study-Port of Miami (1997–2006) 
         Security Organization 
         Legal and Financial Constraints 
         Lessons Learned
    The Challenge of Collaboration in Managing Port Security

    Glossary and Organizational Resources


    Kenneth Christopher, DPA, holds a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice (University of Dayton) and master’s (Florida International University) and doctoral (Nova Southeastern University) degrees in public administration. He is a graduate of the Administrative Officers Management Program at North Carolina State University and the Executive Contemporary Education for Leadership Program at the University of Miami. Dr. Christopher served 26 years in law enforcement, most recently as a captain with the Miami-Dade Police Department in Miami, Florida. From 1996 to 2006, he held progressively responsible police and security management positions at the Port of Miami. In 2005, he was appointed chief of seaport security enforcement and facility security officer, responsible for the port facility security plan, leadership for the civilian security staff, and the coordination of security and law enforcement operations at the world’s largest passenger cruise port. Currently, Dr. Christopher is associate vice president for academic affairs and associate professor of criminal justice at Park University, which provides educational services to 26,000 students at over 40 campus centers across the United States and through distance learning from its home campus in Parkville, Missouri. He has held teaching positions at Lynn University in Boca Raton, Florida, and at St. Thomas University in Miami, Florida. Previously, Dr. Christopher has worked with the U.S. Maritime Administration and the Organization of American States as a curriculum developer and instructor in the Inter-American Port Security Training Program. He has consulted on and developed educational programs and curricula in port security, criminal justice administration, security administration, terrorism and domestic preparedness, police management, and organizational behavior. His current interests include cooperative leadership strategies for port security management and assessing human and technology resources necessary for maritime domain awareness.

    "The main strength of this book is the insight it provides into ‘manufacturing in China’. The breadth of topics is impressive. An interesting book that will be useful for both practitioners and researchers."
    —Professor Ashutosh Tiwari, Cranfield University, UK

    "All those involved in maritime transport and port security will benefit from this informative, authoritative reference and will find it useful in their daily work."
    —Dr. Joshua Sinai, Director of Analytics and Business Intelligence, Resilient Corporation, Alexandria, Virginia, in Security Management