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Power Frequency Magnetic Fields and Public Health



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ISBN 9780849394201
Published June 27, 1995 by CRC Press
288 Pages

 
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Book Description

The prospect that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may foster disease is an alarming thought-one which raises such questions as: What are these invisible forces? How are they produced? Is there conclusive evidence that they are harmful to the human body? How do we protect ourselves against possible harm from them? This book addresses these and other questions about magnetic fields, bringing together in a single reference source the scientific background, current status of health research, and means to reduce the impact of EMFs in our environment.
Important information is provided for developing policies and procedures related to human interaction with magnetic fields. The authors describe the concept of prudent avoidance, emphasizing its value as a tool in the design, construction, and valuation of homes, offices, retail facilities, and factories. The book provides theory, computer simulation results, measured data, and recommendations for magnetic field management, all of which are useful as a power system design and construction resource.
The authors have compiled an impressive summary of the studies, findings, and reports done in the past 15 years in the areas of human health effects which might be attributed to exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Wherever appropriate throughout text, the authors provide examples to illustrate concepts and include end-of-chapter exercises (with solutions) to help readers solidify their understanding of the material presented. Originally designed as a textbook, this is also an excellent reference in the areas of environmental engineering, city and regional planning, and electrical engineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Goal in Writing this Book
Intended Audiences
Possible Applications for this Book
Using the Book's Features
Overview of Chapters 2 through 9
Magnetic Fields and Human Health Issues
Overview
Introduction to Human Health Issues
Historical Development
Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields
Epidemiological Studies
Interaction Mechanisms
Studies Under Way
Summary
References
The Nature and Measurement of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields
Overview
The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Sinewaves
Fields-A Definition
The Nature of Fields from Single Phase Alternating Current Sources
The Nature of Fields from Multiphase Alternating Current Sources
The Measures and Units of the B Field (Place an overbar over the B)
Principles of Measurement of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields
Measurement of Single Phase Fields
Measurement of Multiphase Fields
The Effects of Harmonics
Commercially Available Field Meters
Summary
References
Exercises
Sources of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Electric Energy Delivery System
Overview
Transmission System
Primary Distribution Systems
Secondary and Services
Summary
References
Exercises
Characterization of Fields from Transmission and Distribution Lines
Overview
Introduction to the Characterization of Fields from Transmission and Distribution Lines
The Effect of Line Construction (Three Phase Overhead)
The Effect of Unbalanced Phase Currents (Three Phase Overhead)
The Effect of Line Construction (Single Phase Overhead)
The Effect of Line Construction (Three Phase Underground)
The Effect of Unbalanced Phase Currents (Three Phase Underground)
The Effect of Earth Return (Single Phase Underground)
Summary
References
Exercises
Characterization of Fields from Distribution Substations and Transformers
Overview
Introduction
Distribution Substations
Characterization of Fields of Distribution Substations
Distribution Transformers
Characterization of Fields of Distribution Transformers
Summary
References
Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Home
Overview
Sources
Characterization of Power Line Fields in the Home
Fields Due to Ground Currents
Characterization of Fields Due to Appliances and Lighting
Variations Between Types of Residences
Measurement of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields
Summary
References
Exercises
Management of Magnetic Fields by Shielding
Overview
Introduction to Shielding
Principles of Shielding
Shielding Applied to a Three Phase Underground Cable
Shielding Applied to a Specific Region-Magnetic Shielding
Shielding Applied to a Specific Region-Electromagnetic Shielding
Active Shielding or Cancellation
Summary
References
Exercises
Regulatory Issues and Prudent Avoidance
Overview
Introduction to Regulatory Issues
Standards, Limits, and Guidelines
Regulation in the Face of Uncertainty
Regulatory Actions in the United States
Regulatory Actions in Other Countries
International Guidelines
Summary
References
Appendix A: The Physics of Magnetic Fields
Introduction to Fields
Magnetic Field Intensity
Magnetic Flux Density
Magnetic Flux
Units
Magnetic Circuits
References
Appendix B: Modeling and Calculating the Transmission Line Field
The Field Ellipse and the Resultant Field
The Transmission Line Model
Hand Calculation of the Magnetic Field of a Three Phase Transmission Line
Computer Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of a Three Phase Transmission Line
References
Appendix C: The Magnetic Field of a Transmission Line at a Large Distance from the Line
Theory of Reduced Magnetic Field Power Lines
References
Appendix D: The Science of Epidemiology
Appendix E: Glossary
Appendix F: Personal Prudent Avoidance Actions
Index

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