Power Frequency Magnetic Fields and Public Health: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Power Frequency Magnetic Fields and Public Health

1st Edition

By William F. Horton, Saul Goldberg

CRC Press

288 pages

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Hardback: 9780849394201
pub: 1995-06-27
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Description

The prospect that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may foster disease is an alarming thought-one which raises such questions as: What are these invisible forces? How are they produced? Is there conclusive evidence that they are harmful to the human body? How do we protect ourselves against possible harm from them? This book addresses these and other questions about magnetic fields, bringing together in a single reference source the scientific background, current status of health research, and means to reduce the impact of EMFs in our environment.

Important information is provided for developing policies and procedures related to human interaction with magnetic fields. The authors describe the concept of prudent avoidance, emphasizing its value as a tool in the design, construction, and valuation of homes, offices, retail facilities, and factories. The book provides theory, computer simulation results, measured data, and recommendations for magnetic field management, all of which are useful as a power system design and construction resource.

The authors have compiled an impressive summary of the studies, findings, and reports done in the past 15 years in the areas of human health effects which might be attributed to exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Wherever appropriate throughout text, the authors provide examples to illustrate concepts and include end-of-chapter exercises (with solutions) to help readers solidify their understanding of the material presented. Originally designed as a textbook, this is also an excellent reference in the areas of environmental engineering, city and regional planning, and electrical engineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Goal in Writing this Book

Intended Audiences

Possible Applications for this Book

Using the Book's Features

Overview of Chapters 2 through 9

Magnetic Fields and Human Health Issues

Overview

Introduction to Human Health Issues

Historical Development

Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields

Epidemiological Studies

Interaction Mechanisms

Studies Under Way

Summary

References

The Nature and Measurement of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields

Overview

The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Sinewaves

Fields-A Definition

The Nature of Fields from Single Phase Alternating Current Sources

The Nature of Fields from Multiphase Alternating Current Sources

The Measures and Units of the B Field (Place an overbar over the B)

Principles of Measurement of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields

Measurement of Single Phase Fields

Measurement of Multiphase Fields

The Effects of Harmonics

Commercially Available Field Meters

Summary

References

Exercises

Sources of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Electric Energy Delivery System

Overview

Transmission System

Primary Distribution Systems

Secondary and Services

Summary

References

Exercises

Characterization of Fields from Transmission and Distribution Lines

Overview

Introduction to the Characterization of Fields from Transmission and Distribution Lines

The Effect of Line Construction (Three Phase Overhead)

The Effect of Unbalanced Phase Currents (Three Phase Overhead)

The Effect of Line Construction (Single Phase Overhead)

The Effect of Line Construction (Three Phase Underground)

The Effect of Unbalanced Phase Currents (Three Phase Underground)

The Effect of Earth Return (Single Phase Underground)

Summary

References

Exercises

Characterization of Fields from Distribution Substations and Transformers

Overview

Introduction

Distribution Substations

Characterization of Fields of Distribution Substations

Distribution Transformers

Characterization of Fields of Distribution Transformers

Summary

References

Power Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Home

Overview

Sources

Characterization of Power Line Fields in the Home

Fields Due to Ground Currents

Characterization of Fields Due to Appliances and Lighting

Variations Between Types of Residences

Measurement of Residential Power Frequency Magnetic Fields

Summary

References

Exercises

Management of Magnetic Fields by Shielding

Overview

Introduction to Shielding

Principles of Shielding

Shielding Applied to a Three Phase Underground Cable

Shielding Applied to a Specific Region-Magnetic Shielding

Shielding Applied to a Specific Region-Electromagnetic Shielding

Active Shielding or Cancellation

Summary

References

Exercises

Regulatory Issues and Prudent Avoidance

Overview

Introduction to Regulatory Issues

Standards, Limits, and Guidelines

Regulation in the Face of Uncertainty

Regulatory Actions in the United States

Regulatory Actions in Other Countries

International Guidelines

Summary

References

Appendix A: The Physics of Magnetic Fields

Introduction to Fields

Magnetic Field Intensity

Magnetic Flux Density

Magnetic Flux

Units

Magnetic Circuits

References

Appendix B: Modeling and Calculating the Transmission Line Field

The Field Ellipse and the Resultant Field

The Transmission Line Model

Hand Calculation of the Magnetic Field of a Three Phase Transmission Line

Computer Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of a Three Phase Transmission Line

References

Appendix C: The Magnetic Field of a Transmission Line at a Large Distance from the Line

Theory of Reduced Magnetic Field Power Lines

References

Appendix D: The Science of Epidemiology

Appendix E: Glossary

Appendix F: Personal Prudent Avoidance Actions

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical